Simple linear regression was used to investigate the influence of

Simple linear regression was used to investigate the influence of degree of disability (ie, admission FIM score) on the amount of time spent active in therapy. Seventy-nine therapy sessions (34 individual therapy sessions and 45

circuit class therapy sessions) of 29 participants were video-recorded in three different inpatient rehabilitation centres in South Australia. A subsample of 28 videos (13 individual therapy sessions and 15 circuit class therapy sessions) was further Venetoclax price analysed with regard to the number of steps taken by participants during circuit class therapy sessions and individual therapy sessions. The participants were aged between 50 and 84 years. A summary of their baseline characteristics is presented in Table 1. The average duration of physiotherapy sessions was 56.4 minutes (SD 24.0, range 18 to 90). Circuit class therapy sessions were of a longer duration than individual therapy sessions, with a mean difference of 38.0 minutes (95% CI 29.9 to 46.1). Participants also spent more time engaged in active task practice in circuit class therapy sessions than individual therapy sessions, with a mean difference of 23.8 minutes (95% CI 16.1 to 31.4). Participants in circuit class therapy sessions spent significantly more time resting, practising tasks in sitting, practising transfers, and practising upper limb activities,

as presented in Table 2. Due to the difference in therapy session duration between circuit class Hedgehog inhibitor therapy sessions and individual therapy sessions, it is useful to examine differences in the percentage of therapy time

devoted to different activities. A significantly greater percentage of time in circuit class therapy sessions was spent practising tasks in sitting (mean difference 5.3%, 95% CI 2.4 to 8.2) and practising transfers (mean difference 2.7%, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.1), as presented in Table 3. A significantly smaller percentage of circuit class therapy sessions were spent practising walking, compared to individual therapy Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase sessions (mean difference −19.1%, 95% CI −28.1 to −10.0). Participants took a mean of 371 steps (SD 418) during therapy sessions. This did not differ significantly between therapy formats, with 338 steps (SD 430) in individual therapy sessions and 398 steps (SD 420) in circuit class therapy sessions. There was a low, but statistically significant correlation between admission FIM scores and the amount of active task practice in therapy (r = 0.22, p = 0.02). Therefore, admission FIM explained only 5% of the variance in activity time, as presented in Figure 1. This is the largest study to date to investigate the content of physiotherapy sessions for stroke using a direct measure of therapy content (ie, video analysis) and the only such study to involve multiple data collection sites.

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HPV vaccination has not yet been implemented in low- and middle-i

HPV vaccination has not yet been implemented in low- and middle-income countries with the highest cervical cancer rates. Mathematical models estimate that if 70% vaccination coverage is achieved in low- and middle-income countries, HPV vaccines

could prevent the deaths of more than 4 million women vaccinated over the next decade [107]. The GAVI Alliance has approved initial funding for HPV vaccination in eligible low-income countries, which is a major step toward ensuring universal access to HPV vaccine. However, the barriers related to providing a vaccine in early adolescence are even greater than those of including HBV vaccine in the infant immunization schedule. Barriers include difficulties Talazoparib accessing 11–14-year-olds in areas where health-care seeking and school attendance may be low, and parental or societal hesitation related to a vaccine against STIs for adolescents. A great deal will be learned MDV3100 datasheet from current implementation

of HPV vaccine to inform delivery of future STI vaccines. Most STI vaccines are being developed for early adolescents, to provide maximal protection before and during the time of highest risk. For some vaccines, there may be compelling reasons for infant vaccination in addition to implementation issues, for example, an HSV vaccine that would also protect against HSV-1 infection. Nonetheless, new adolescent platforms for health intervention delivery are needed to respond to a global agenda to improve adolescent health, especially sexual and reproductive health [108]. HPV vaccine implementation is an opportunity to develop these adolescent platforms, which can be used not only for currently recommended prevention services, but also for future STI vaccines. mafosfamide Given common risk factors, high rates of co-infection, and epidemiologic overlap in STI-related complications, combination STI vaccines for adolescents would be an important future goal. HPV vaccine

implementation will also provide insight on monitoring vaccine impact, which will need to be considered for other STI vaccines well in advance of vaccine availability. In the face of almost half a billion curable STIs occurring annually [9], more than half a billion people with a viral STI at any point in time [11] and [14], and the resulting burden of STI-related complications affecting sexual, reproductive, and maternal-child health, new prevention paradigms are needed. Existing STI prevention interventions can be optimally scaled up within a broad framework of health promotion and wellness, with normalization and integration of STI services into primary and reproductive healthcare settings.

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Students participating in focus groups included year 7, and older

Students participating in focus groups included year 7, and older students in the “catch-up” program. We recruited 20 focus groups of adolescent girls and interviewed 38 parents. All interested participants at each school were included in data collection. Additional schools were sampled until conceptual saturation was reached (Table 1). Most of the parents interviewed were female (37/38) and originally from Australia (21/38). Some parents performed home duties only (6/38) and some engaged in work outside the home as well. Approximately 15% of the parents interviewed did not consent for their daughters to be vaccinated. Focus groups

were comprised of girls of similar age in each group in schools (e.g. Year 7 or 9–10). Individual interviews were conducted with parents of some of the girls who participated in the focus groups. An interview schedule with prompts was informed buy PD0332991 by the literature and utilized in initial interviews; subsequent interviews were guided by the data analysis. This ensured that

all potential themes were explored. The following topics were explored in relation to HPV and HPV vaccination: discussions with family and friends, attitudes, decision-making processes, knowledge and understanding, experience of vaccination, and questions and concerns that were raised by participants. While knowledge was a topic purposefully explored, low knowledge and understanding emerged as an underlying theme that contextualized all data collected. All focus

groups and interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and then recurring themes and patterns were identified. Using an inductive method involving constant comparison [14], we compared Erastin cell line emerging themes and experiences within and between each focus group and interview. The first two authors completed separate analyses of the data, coding the data sentence by sentence, and then discussed identified themes. To ensure reliability, two experts were asked to read a selection of transcripts and identify themes. Finding no major discrepancies, coding and analysis was completed. Conceptual saturation was reached when no new codes were generated [15]. An overall analysis was performed to confirm that the ranges of diverse themes that emerged were represented [16]. The study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee at the Children’s Hospital at Westmead, the Olopatadine Department of Education and Training, The Independent Schools Association, and the Catholic Diocese of Parramatta. The core theme presented in this paper is lack of knowledge. See Fig. 1 for a pictorial representation of the supporting themes and their relationships. These themes were present across all groups of girls and parents, regardless of age, school type, date since receiving vaccination information, or vaccination status. In each quote reference, the letter corresponds to a code for the school, and the number refers to either an adolescent focus group (FG), or parental interview (P).

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8 μm particle sizes on Agilent 1200 Series UPLC interfaced to an

8 μm particle sizes on Agilent 1200 Series UPLC interfaced to an Agilent 6520 Accurate-Mass QTOFMS. A volume of 20 μl of each sample was injected by auto-sampler to the column. Mobile phase comprised solvent A (water containing 0.1% formic acid) and solvent B (acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid) was used in gradient mode. The following gradient elution was carried out: eluent B 5–20%from 8 selleck to 15 min; eluent B 45–65% from 22 to 30 min; eluent B 65–90% from 35 to 40 min (to wash the column); eluent B 5% for 40–45 min (for column equilibration). The flow rate of

the solvent was maintained 0.2 ml/min. The mass spectrometer was operated in positive mode in the m/z range 100–1100 at acquisition rate of 2 MS/MS and 3 MS spectra/s with following parameters: gas temperature MK0683 mouse 350 °C, nebulizer 45 psi, drying gas flow 11 L/min, capillary 3.5 V, skimmer voltage 65 V and fragmentor voltage 175 V. Instrument

was calibrated and tuned as per instruction of manufacturer. To assure mass accuracy of recorded ions, continuous calibrations with internal and infused standards with samples (lidocaine, D-camphor, 5, 7-isoflavone) were performed during analysis. MassHunter Workstation software (MassHunter version 3.1) was used for UPLC–QTOFMS data processing which includes of peak detection, chromatographic alignment, background removal, normalization and mass filtering. The raw data set acquired were initially analyzed by Molecular Features (MFs) extraction software for the detection of the compounds. The list of chemically qualified MFs was generated by eliminating interferences and reducing data complexity. Molecular formulae were estimated Chlormezanone on the basis of fragment patterns of ions. Different intensity threshold from 1000 to 10,000 cpu was used for molecular feature extraction in the full retention time range. Background subtracted data of compound exchange (.cef) files was exported into the Mass Profiler Professional (MPP) software package

(Agilent Technologies, version B 02.02). MPP was used for statistical evaluation of technical reproducibility and comparison of samples. In MPP, the retention time and m/z alignment across the sample sets was performed using a tolerance window of 0.2 min and 20 mDa. Molecular Features were reduced stepwise based on frequency of occurrence, abundance of respective MFs in classes and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A probability level of p < 0.05 was applied to reduce nonsignificant molecular features. Compounds that satisfied fold change cut-off 2.0 in at least one condition pair were selected for further analysis and differentiation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were performed using MPP. The MS/MS were performed in positive ion mode with optimized parameters. As juice of T.

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In one of the health areas (Binko), due the classification proble

In one of the health areas (Binko), due the classification problems described and in order to preserve the quality of the results, it was decided that instead of using the new colour intensity scale model, the classical method of classifying VVMs by the four stages would be used (Fig. 1a). However, past studies have shown VVMs to be a reliable, easy to read tool that allows

health care workers to clearly assess if a vaccine click here should be used [14], [15], [16] and [17]. These findings were confirmed in our study through the vaccinators’ responses to the questionnaire, with 89% of respondents classifying the VVM’s colour progression as ‘easy’ or ‘very easy’ to interpret. The vaccination teams involved in the study were composed of volunteers without any specific health care training, who showed commitment to the study protocol and its selleck kinase inhibitor implementation. Most of them had previously participated in other NIDs. The majority of vaccinators (90%) and supervisors (88%) interviewed preferred the OCC procedures. Following OCC procedures meant they had less weight to carry, the process of preparing for the outreach visits was easier and quicker, and, finally, the costs incurred were reduced. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic documentation of Oral Polio Vaccine kept outside of the

cold chain during vaccination activities in the field. As previously stated, OCC can be a useful alternative in specific contexts, where maintaining the cold chain poses a challenge. This includes campaigns such as the polio NIDs, where large-scale outreach activities are conducted. Use of this approach provides an opportunity old to expand coverage, which is essential to achieving elimination and eradication targets. Moreover, as the number of vaccines included in the EPI programme continues to increase, the same approach

can be considered as a way to address the cold chain capacity limitations experienced by many countries. However, it is essential to note that using vaccines outside of the cold chain can only be considered if the vaccine has a VVM and if adequate training of the vaccinators precedes the introduction of OCC practices. OCC practices have been under discussion within the immunization community and have been in use in several countries for many years [18], [19], [20], [21] and [22]. Nonetheless thus far, the implementation of and programmatic implications of these practices have not been studied scientifically. It is important to increase the evidence available on this approach, which has a great potential for facilitating expanded vaccination activities and increasing the flexibility of vaccination practices.

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This solution was used as standard solution The magnesium was es

This solution was used as standard solution. The magnesium was estimated by titrimetric method using standard EDTA with Erio-chrome black-T indicator at pH10 using ammonia as a buffer. Vitamin B was determined spectrocolorimetrically

with the reagent ferric sulfate and KCNS. Vitamin A was estimated spectrocolorimetrically using acidic antimony chloride reagent by the standard graph method. The total flavonoid and phenolic contents were quantified by spectrophotometeric method using Folin’s Ciocalteaus reagent. The other secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, tannins, lignins, glycosides, serpentines, terpenoids and saponins quantified by HPLC method and C18 general purpose column. The mobile phase consisted of solvent A (Methanol) and solvent B (0.5% (v/v) orthophosphoric acid in water). The data were interpreted by the Millenium Chromatography Manager V4.0 Software.4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13 Fresh Sorafenib purchase leaves were collected,

shade dried and powdered mechanically. About 100 g of the powder were extracted with 1000 mL of 70% ethanol by hot percolation method using soxhlet extractor for 4 h. The extract obtained was evaporated at 45 °C to get a semi solid mass. The yield of ethanolic extract was found to be 40%. This extract was used Selleck Anti-diabetic Compound Library for further studies.14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 To determine the DPPH assay of sample by Gyamfi et al., method, free radical scavenging potential of P. wightianus leaf extracts was tested against a methanolic solution of DPPH (α, α-diphenyl-β-picryl hydrazyl). When antioxidants react with DPPH, the DPPH was converted Adenylyl cyclase to α, α-diphenyl-β-picryl hydrazine with a discoloration. The degree of discoloration indicates the scavenging potentials of the antioxidant extract. The change

in the absorbance produced at 517 nm has been used as a measure of antioxidant activity. The change in absorbance of the samples was measured. Free radical scavenging activity was expressed as the inhibition percentage calculated using the formula. Percentageofanti-radicalactivity=[A−B/A]×100where, ‘A’ is absorbance of control & ‘B’ is absorbance of sample. To determine the reducing power assay of sample by Yildrim et al., 1 mL of leaf extract was mixed with phosphate buffer (2.5 mL 0.2 M, pH 6.6) and potassium ferricyanide (2.5 mL). The mixture was incubated at 50 °C for 20 min. A portion (2.5 mL) of trichloroacetic acid (10%) was added to the mixture, which was then centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min. The upper layer of solution (2.5 mL) was mixed with distilled water (2.5 mL) and ferricchloride (0.5 mL, 0.1%) and absorbance measured at 700 nm. Increased absorbance of the reaction mixture indicates stronger reducing power. The activity was compared with ascorbic acid standard. Percentagescavengingactivity=Acontrol−AtestAcontrol×100where Acontrol is the absorbance of the control. Atest is the absorbance in the presence of the sample.

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Post-immunization serum samples from Ty21a recipients and mononuc

Post-immunization serum samples from Ty21a recipients and mononuclear cells were able to kill Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A and B, but not Salmonella Paratyphi C or Salmonella

Tel Aviv, neither of which share O-antigen epitopes with Ty21a. Later, Nishini et al. [23] conducted similar experiments and found a specific cell-mediated immune response not only to Salmonella Typhi but also to Salmonella Paratyphi A and B in Ty21a recipients. This study is the first to explore cross-reactive plasmablasts in patients with typhoid or paratyphoid fever. Both specific and cross-reactive plasmablasts could be found in all of these Ibrutinib patients. These data are in accordance with the O-/Vi-antigen properties of these pathogens. learn more In patients with typhoid fever, cross-reactive plasmablasts were seen to Salmonella Paratyphi A, B (O-12 as shared epitope in both strains) and C (Vi-antigen as shared epitope), and in the patient with paratyphoid A fever, a cross-reactive response was seen against Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi B (O-12 as shared epitope), but not against Salmonella Paratyphi

C (no shared epitopes). The magnitude of the response in patients and vaccinees was similar. The timing of the sampling in vaccinees was based on previous studies showing peak values of ASC seven days after vaccination [18] and [43]. In studies on natural infections, samples are taken seven days after onset of symptoms [36] and [37] as in the present study. The long incubation time in enteric fever implies that the pathogen was encountered several weeks earlier and hence, our timing may not hit the peak. However, in our recent study on Salmonella gastroenteritis, ASC were found as long as the antigen

persisted and no clear peak was seen [44]. The immunoglobulin isotype distribution of the responses in the vaccinees showed a predominance of IgA and IgM plasmablasts. This is consistent with our previous studies showing that while IgM response peaks on day 5, and IgG and IgA responses on day 7 [20], on day 7 both IgA and IgM predominate [20]. Notably, the immunoglobulin no isotype switch of mucosal IgA cells may take place only after their arrival in the lamina propria, i.e. after finishing the recirculation [45]. Accordingly, when assessing mucosal immune response with the help of recirculating plasmablasts, an analysis of all three Ig-classes should always be included, as the circulating IgM-secreting plasmablasts may mature into IgA producing cells only later. This is nicely evidenced also by the fact that basically all circulating Ty21a-specific plasmablasts, regardless of isotype, express α4β7, indicating an intestinal homing of these cells [29], [30] and [40]. Our previous studies show that the numbers of plasmablasts increase with increasing numbers of Ty21a vaccine doses [20].

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Those who smoked more than 10 cigarettes a day in 1991 had a 5 (9

Those who smoked more than 10 cigarettes a day in 1991 had a 5 (95% CI: 1–8) percentage point lower probability of good health than those who have never smoked, and those who had no support in 1991 had a 16 (95% CI:

9–25) percentage point lower probability of good health. The coefficients for vegetable consumption and for friend/family relations are not statistically significant at conventional levels. The positive coefficient for drinking shrinks and loses statistical significance in model 1B, resulting from the age and gender adjustment: Those who drink more are younger and more often male, and the positive coefficient in model 1A was confounded by the better health of younger people and of men. Looking at health in 2010 (models 2A–2B), the risk differences are generally similar to those in models 1A–1B. However, the negative effect for heavy smokers as compared to non-smokers is larger at 10 percentage points Kinase Inhibitor Library (95% CI: 5–15, adjusted model), and the adjusted effects of social support and exercise are not statistically significant (model 2B). The coefficient for vegetable consumption is (barely) statistically significant, showing 4 percentage points [95% CI 0.2–7] higher probability of better health in 2010 for those who ate vegetables every day compared to those who did not. To make the results more intuitive, Fig. 1 gives the predicted probability

from model 1B DAPT concentration of bad health in 2000 for a type case, as described in the Methods section. A clustering of risk factors is related to a large risk of declining health: the “worst” combination of risk factors exemplified here (smoking 10 or more cigarettes a day, having no support and never exercise) gives a predicted probability of almost 50% of bad health for this type case, compared to only 15% for those who never smoke, exercise every week and have social support. The scope of this article is broad, analysing different life-style factors and general self-rated health over long time. 80% of the respondents with good health in 1991 have retained it in 2000/2010, while 20% report worse health.

We have studied how these 20% differ, in terms of their lifestyle in 1991, from those with persistently good health. The lifestyle Dipeptidyl peptidase effects on mortality are well established in the literature (citations above), and our results here suggest that health effects of smoking and exercise, and to some extent social support and vegetable consumption, are reflected also in the subjective sense of overall health. This may seem intuitive, but is not obvious as subjective health can incorporate factors not captured by mortality differences. The general pattern of results is also in line with the previous cross-sectional findings on self-rated health. For example, statistically significant associations in the same direction as here have been found on Swedish data for exercise (Manderbacka et al.

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(1972) We observed the latency to seizure onset, the tonic-cloni

(1972). We observed the latency to seizure onset, the tonic-clonic seizure time, the total seizure time, the number of seizures and how many seizures reached the fifth stage MK-8776 datasheet on Racine’s scale (tonic-clonic seizures). Following the seizure tests, all animals, with or without PTZ treatment, were killed by decapitation. The hippocampus, cerebellum and cerebral cortex

were isolated and stored at −80 °C. Prior to each assay, the tissues were homogenized in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) using a ground-glass-type Potter–Elvehjem homogenizer and were centrifuged for five minutes. The supernatant was used in all assays. All processes were carried out under cold conditions. To evaluate a possible neuroprotective effect of the juices, we measured the lipid and protein oxidative damage, the nitric oxide content and the enzymatic (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and non-enzymatic (sulfhydryl protein) antioxidant defenses.

We used the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) during an acid-heating reaction as an index of lipid peroxidation, as previously described by Wills (1996). The results were expressed as nmol of malondialdehyde (MDA)/mg protein. The oxidative damage to proteins was assessed by the formation of carbonyl groups based on the reaction with dinitrophenylhydrazine, as previously described by Levine et al. (1990). The results

were expressed buy Cobimetinib as nmol/mg of protein. Nitric oxide production only was determined based on the Griess reaction (Green et al., 1981). Nitrite concentration was determined from a standard nitrite curve generated using sodium nitroprusside. The results were expressed as mg/mL of sodium nitroprusside/mg protein. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was assayed by measuring the inhibition of adrenaline auto-oxidation, as previously described (Bannister and Calabarese, 1987), and the results were expressed as U SOD (units of enzyme activity)/mg of protein. One unit was defined as the amount of enzyme that inhibits the rate of adrenochrome formation in 50%. Catalase (CAT) activity was assayed by measuring the rate of decrease in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) absorbance at 240 nm, as previously described (Aebi, 1984), and the results were expressed as mmol H2O2/min/ mg of protein. The protein sulfhydryl content was evaluated by the 5,5′-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) method (Aksenov and Markesbery, 2001), and the results are expressed as nmol DTNB/mg of protein. Protein concentration was measured by the Bradford method Bradford (1976) using bovine serum albumin as a standard. The total phenolic content of the organic and conventional grape juices were measured using the modification of the Folin–Ciocalteau colorimetric method, as described by Singleton et al. (1999).

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Ratings by

two assessors for 14 of the 20 APP items were

Ratings by

two assessors for 14 of the 20 APP items were identical among 70% or more of the 30 pairs. Figure 1 shows the percent exact agreement and the percent close agreement, ie, within 1 point on the 5-point scale, for each of the 20 items. There was complete agreement between 24 pairs of raters (80%) for the overall global rating of student performance. The remaining six pairs of raters all scored within one point of each other on the 4-point Global Rating Scale. A scatterplot was visually assessed for violation of assumptions of linearity and homoscedasticity. Figure 2 shows the positive, strong Selisistat cell line (Cohen 1988), linear, significant relationship between Rater 1 and Rater 2 total APP scores [r = 0.92 (95% CI 0.87 to 0.95), p < 0.0005]. The coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.85) indicates that 85% (95% CI 75% to 90%) of the variance in a rater’s scores was explained

by variance in the other rater’s scores. The ICC(2,1) (two-way random effects model) for total APP scores for the two raters was 0.92 (95% CI 0.84 to 0.96). The ICC(2,1) for the global rating scale scores was 0.72 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.86). Table 2 presents the ICC(2,1) results for the total score, each of the 20 APP items, and the Global Rating Scale. The SEM for the total score was 3.2 APP points (scale width 0–80) indicating that a student’s true score will typically fall between an obtained score plus or minus 3.2 (at 68% confidence). The 95% confidence band around a single score was 6.5 APP points (given t(0.05, df = 29) = 2.045). This implies that in 95% learn more of cases a student’s true APP total score will fall between the obtained score plus or minus 6.5 points. Minimal detectable change scores were calculated for the total and individual item score data at the 90% confidence interval. The MDC90 for the APP total scores was 7.86 (given t(0.1, df = 29) = 1.699). This implies that a change in score

Thiamine-diphosphate kinase of around 8 APP total score units is required to be confident that for 90% of students demonstrating changes of this magnitude, real change in professional competence has occurred. As the APP scale width is 0–80, the MDC90 represents 9% of the scale. For each item the MDC90 ranges from 0.60 to 0.85. Therefore on the 5-point rating scale used to score each item, a change in rating of around 1 point (the minimal observable change) indicates that real change in performance on that item has occurred beyond random variability. A Bland and Altman plot was constructed to display errors in estimates of total APP scores (Figure 3). In this plot, differences between raters’ marks were plotted against the mean of the two raters’ marks, and the 95% limits of agreement were defined. The Bland-Altman plot shows that the disagreement between raters was not greater among high scores than among low scores, or vice versa.

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