The second issue lies with the concept of sampling, as the partic

The second issue lies with the concept of sampling, as the participants in the study were drawn from a convenience sample from an access research panel, and is unlikely that such a sample would be representative of the general population. Persons

with arthritis in Australia have marked impairments in quality of life characterized by difficulty with many aspects of daily activity. These impairments are more stark when put in the context of some other common and morbid diseases. Despite significant impairments in pain and quality selleckchem of life, many persons have not discussed their pain with their GP and many don’t take prescribed treatments due largely to concerns over potential side effects. This platform provides ample opportunity for increased awareness of the disease and increased knowledge about the potential for improved management. DJH participated in the design of the survey and drafted the manuscript. ER participated

in drafting CX-5461 mw the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. We would like to thank the participants in this survey without whom this work would not have been possible. Dr Hunter is funded by an ARC Future Fellowship. The corresponding author had full access to all the data in the study and had final responsibility for the decision to submit for publication. This project was initiated and funded by AstraZeneca Pty Ltd (Australia). The Pain and Mobility Index conducted by Hall & Partners was coordinated by Scaffidi Hugh-Jones on behalf of AstraZeneca Pty Ltd (Australia). “
“The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) following Methocarbamol anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy in an intermediate TB burden area and to compare the risk between drugs and diseases. The data were obtained from a nationwide database maintained by the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. The study population comprised of patients

who were prescribed with TNF inhibitors from 2005 to 2009. TB cases were selected based on prescription of anti-TB medications. Of 8421 patients in the study population, 1729 patients with latent TB prophylaxis were identified and 102 patients developed TB. The incidence of TB was 1017 per 100 000 person-years. When divided into four groups according to the main diagnosis and using an ankylosing spondylitis group as a reference, the incidence of TB was highest in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 5.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.34–10.66), followed by patients with rheumatoid arthritis (IRR 1.02, 95% CI 0.57–1.83) and those with psoriatic arthritis (IRR 1.00, 95% CI 0.14–7.30).

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aeruginosa strains may exist with a specific repertoire of geneti

aeruginosa strains may exist with a specific repertoire of genetic elements (i.e., pyoverdines, GI/PI). Consequently, our data indirectly suggest that because of adaptation of bovine strains to these habitats, selleck compound the public health risk of raw milk consumption could be considered low for P. aeruginosa. The authors express their thanks for the generous help and advice of Dr Lutz Wiehlmann all through this study including preparation of the manuscript. We also thank the Clinical Research

Group OE6710, Hannover Medical School (Grant GRK653/3), for the grants of EU NoE LSHB-CT-2005-512061 EuroPathoGenomics (EPG) and of MedVetNet (EU NoE Network for the Prevention and Control of Zoonoses) for the support of these studies. Our thanks are also due to our colleagues from the National Center for Epidemiology, Dr Miklós Füzi, Dr Judit

Pászti and Dr Balázs Libisch Alectinib cell line for the human strains. We also thank to Márta Puruczki and Erika Sajtós for their help in isolation and identification of the bovine and environmental strains. The authors have no conflict of interest to declare. “
“The soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani is an economically important pathogen of agricultural and forestry crops. Here, we present the complete sequence and analysis of the mitochondrial genome of R. solani, field isolate Rhs1AP. The genome (235 849 bp) is the largest mitochondrial genome of a filamentous fungus sequenced to date and exhibits a rich accumulation of introns, novel repeat sequences, homing endonuclease genes, and hypothetical genes. Stable secondary structures exhibited by repeat sequences suggest that they comprise functional, possibly Plasmin catalytic RNA elements. RNA-Seq expression profiling confirmed that the majority of homing endonuclease genes and hypothetical genes are transcriptionally active. Comparative analysis suggests that the mitochondrial

genome of R. solani is an example of a dynamic history of expansion in filamentous fungi. “
“The influence of nitrate and nitrite on growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum under aerobic conditions in shake flasks was analysed. When dissolved oxygen became limiting at higher cell densities, nitrate was reduced almost stoichiometrically to nitrite by nitrate reductase (NarGHJI). The nitrite concentration also declined slowly, presumably as a result of several reactions including reduction to nitric oxide by a side-activity of nitrate reductase. The flavohaemoglobin gene hmp was most strongly upregulated (19-fold) in the presence of nitrite. Hmp is known to catalyse the oxygen-dependent oxidation of nitric oxide to nitrate and, in the absence of oxygen, with a much lower rate the reduction of nitric oxide to nitrous oxide. A Δhmp mutant showed strong growth defects under aerobic conditions in the presence of nitrate, nitrite and the NO-donating reagent sodium nitroprusside, but also under anaerobic nitrate-respiring conditions.

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, 2010) In NAE1 cells, EGFP fluorescence was not detected in vac

, 2010). In NAE1 cells, EGFP fluorescence was not detected in vacuoles under growth conditions that were sufficient for the observation of the Cvt pathway in WT (Fig. 3b, NAE1). This result indicated that AoApe1–EGFP was mainly transported to vacuoles via the Cvt pathway. To further investigate the apparent link between autophagy and differentiation of filamentous fungi, including aerial hyphal growth, conidiation, and sclerotial formation, we assayed

for differentiation in an Aoatg1-overexpressing strain (A1-OE), in which Aoatg1 was expressed under control of the amyB promoter. When strain A1-OE strain was grown on PD and CD agar plates, the colonies appeared slightly white in color (Fig. 4a). Moreover, aerial hyphae were longer compared with those formed by WT (Fig. 4b). To determine whether conidiation was repressed in A1-OE, we counted the number of conidia that were harvested from the A1-OE Tacrolimus mw and WT strains grown on CD agar plates for 3 days at 30 °C. The number of conidia formed by A1-OE was decreased by 10% compared to WT (Fig. 4c). These findings suggested that increased levels of AoAtg1 protein facilitated aerial hyphae growth and the repression of conidiation. Finally, we evaluated sclerotial formation in three autophagy-related gene disruptants (ΔAoatg1, ΔAoatg8, and ΔAoatg13) and the Aoatg1-overexpressing strain A1-OE (Fig. 5).

When these strains were grown on DPY agar medium for 9 days at 30 °C, sclerotial formation was increased in A1-OE compared with WT. For ΔAoatg1 and ΔAoatg8, no sclerotia were formed, whereas Bioactive Compound Library a few sclerotia were formed by ΔAoatg13. Taken together, these results suggested that sclerotial formation

was GNAT2 dependent on the degree of autophagy. To investigate the induction of autophagy in A. oryzae, we first analyzed the localization of AoAtg1 fused to EGFP. In S. cerevisiae, Atg1 complexes and many Atg proteins localize to PAS (Suzuki et al., 2001). We found that AoAtg1–EGFP localized to PAS-like structures, as reported for S. cerevisiae Atg1, and that these punctate structures increased when cells were shifted to starvation conditions. This result suggests that AoAtg1 has similar functions to Atg1 in yeast. No differences were observed between ΔAoatg1 and WT with respect to vegetative growth, but marked inhibition of conidiation and aerial hyphal growth were detected. Aspergillus oryzae Aoatg4 and Aoatg8 disruptants are defective in autophagy and display the same phenotype as ΔAoatg1, which is characterized by aerial hyphae formation (Kikuma & Kitamoto, 2011), suggesting a relationship exists between autophagy and aerial hyphae growth. This speculation is consistent with evidence indicating that aerial hyphae grow by reconstructing basal hyphae (Kikuma et al., 2006).

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This is in keeping with results suggesting that white matter lesi

This is in keeping with results suggesting that white matter lesion in humans are an important determinant of neglect (Thiebaut de Schotten et al., 2005), a view which, however, is not shared by other authors (Karnath et al., 2009). To our knowledge, constructional disorders have never been studied after parietal or cortical lesions in monkeys, probably because this species does not display constructive ability in the wild or, at least, this ability has never been tested in natural conditions. However, when forced in a laboratory setting, monkeys do show limited constructional abilities as a result of training. Under such conditions, certain properties of parietal neurons that

are of interest to pathology emerge, and their collapse could explain constructional disorders of the type observed in man, as documented in a previous section of this STI571 manuscript. Although these properties are likely to be shaped as a result of extensive behavioural training, they could also be considered the substrate of an early form of spatial cognition encoded in parietal

cortex. Some forms of spontaneous spatial construction have been described in chimpanzees (Potì & Langer, 2001; Potì, 2005; Potìet al., 2009), although their constructive space is very primitive Daporinad research buy when compared to that of humans, especially when manipulating simultaneous spatial relationships between multiple objects is required, a task on which chimpanzees systematically fail. Why did elaborate constructional abilities emerge so late during primate evolution? The same question applies to hemispatial neglect, for which a full-blown syndrome closely resembling that observed in man has never been described in monkeys after parietal lesions, this in spite of the fact that parietal neurons encoding visual space in different reference frames have been described, the loss of which could very well explain different forms of neglect. An answer to this paradox can only by speculative. It is possible that, in spite of 30 million years of independent evolution, the basic parietal circuits that subserve attentional

and cognitive motor behaviour were preserved in the brains of humans and monkeys, as suggested Endonuclease by the similarities in parietofrontal connectivity of the two species. However, during human evolution an increase in the complexity of this elementary cortical circuit must have occurred. The specialization of this distributed system (Mountcastle, 1978a) has probably involved changes in the organization of parietal cortex and/or of its connections with other cortical areas. The former probably involved an expansion of the upper cortical layers (Marin Padilla, 1992) during human evolution, perhaps by extending the period of neurogenesis (Kornack & Rakic, 1998) when the neurons that eventually inhabit the upper cortical layers are born. The cell types involved would be likely to include both locally projecting intrinsic interneurons and neurons giving rise to corticocortical projections.

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4 million inhabitants (65%) to 1,943,000 per 163 million inhabi

4 million inhabitants (6.5%) to 1,943,000 per 16.3 million inhabitants (11.9%). This increase largely

reflects travel to the Arab region (305,000 travelers in 1995 vs 968,000 in 2006), including its popular destinations of Turkey (99,000 vs 593,000) and Egypt (26,000 vs 203,000). The number of Dutch travelers to Latin America also showed an annual increase (from 164,000 in 1995 to 378,000 in 2006) particularly for the Caribbean (from 93,000 to 225,000). Travel to Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia fluctuated; the median annual number of travelers was 87,000 and 387,000, respectively. Table 2 shows the region-specific trends in attack rates for hepatitis A, typhoid fever, and shigellosis among Dutch travelers to developing countries. Overall, the attack rate per 100,000 VX809 such travelers declined for hepatitis A from 22.3 to 5.5, for typhoid fever from 5.6 to 1.0, and for shigellosis from 26.8 to 8.4. Among travelers to Latin America, attack rates significantly declined for hepatitis and shigellosis; for typhoid fever, attack rates were low and remained stable. In this region, the Caribbean had the lowest median attack rates; the median typhoid DAPT fever rate was even 0.0. As compared to the other regions, attack rates among travelers in Latin America and the Caribbean were generally

low. For Sub-Saharan Africa, attack rates for all three diseases were high and fluctuated without showing a decrease. Median rates among travelers to Western/Middle

Africa were all higher than among travelers to Eastern/Southern Africa, where the median typhoid fever rate was even 0.0. For the Arab region, attack rates for all three diseases declined significantly. In particular, for the popular tourist destinations of Turkey and Egypt, attack rates dropped substantially. The median typhoid fever rate for Turkey was very low. For Asia, attack rates for Ribonucleotide reductase hepatitis A fluctuated without showing a decrease; for typhoid fever and shigellosis attack rates declined significantly. Median rates for the Indian subcontinent remained high, especially for typhoid fever. As compared to all other world regions, median rates for Thailand/Malaysia were the lowest. Figure 1 shows the trends in HDI, SI, and WSI, respectively. Indices increased for all regions studied. The HDI for all regions increased from 0.622 in 1995 to 0.679 in 2005 (+5.7%) (not shown in Figure 1). Egypt had the biggest increase: 9.5%. Sub-Saharan Africa had the smallest increase: 2.3%. During the study period, HDI levels for Latin America, Turkey, and Thailand/Malaysia were the highest; HDI levels for Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia were the lowest. The SI for all regions increased from 0.452 in 1995 to 0.539 in 2006 (+8.6%) (not shown in Figure 1). Egypt had the biggest increase: 11.0%. Turkey had the smallest increase: 2.0%.

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, 2001) Activation of this area is associated with the selection

, 2001). Activation of this area is associated with the selection among competing responses (Petrides, 2005), and the more superior portion activated here is especially involved in the spatial domain (Volle et al., 2008). During imitation, this region may serve to maintain a representation of the observed goal in short-term working memory for later execution (Chaminade et al., 2002). Co-activation of the superior frontal gyrus and posterior inferior frontal gyrus

may thus reflect Naïve reliance on kinematic simulation and top-down direction of attention to task-relevant spatial cues. When combined with the anterior inferior parietal and ventral prefrontal activations observed across all groups, these Naïve activations match the general Lumacaftor purchase expectations of a simulation model of novel action understanding (Buccino et al., 2004; Vogt et al., 2007). No activations exclusive to Trained subjects were observed in the Acheulean–Oldowan contrast. Comparison with the numerous activations observed

in the contrast of Toolmaking–Control for Trained subjects (Table 2; Fig. 2) indicates that this result derives from the presence of similar responses to Oldowan and Acheulean stimuli rather than from the absence of significant differences from Control. This is corroborated by the observation of similar activations in separate contrasts of Oldowan–Control and Acheulean–Control (Supporting Information Figs S3 and S4; Tables S1 and S2). The Trained response to both Oldowan learn more and Acheulean stimuli includes: (i) clusters in the anterior insula, lateral premotor cortex, frontal eye field and supplementary eye field likely related to attentional and affective engagement with the stimuli; and (ii) ventral prefrontal clusters likely associated with parsing of observed action

sequences. Insular activations Erastin nmr unique to Trained subjects are in an anterior region associated with interoception, subjective feeling and perceptual awareness (Kikyo et al., 2002; Ploran et al., 2007; Craig, 2009). Activations of the left medial frontal cortex (close to y = 0) and posterior middle frontal gyrus appear to fall within the supplementary and frontal eye fields (Tehovnik et al., 2000), functional regions associated with saccades, visual attention and visual learning (Tehovnik et al., 2000; Grosbras et al., 2005). Together with activation of the precentral gyrus, a region commonly recruited during action observation (Grezes & Decety, 2001; Caspers et al., 2010), these activations likely indicate intense engagement by Trained subjects with the Toolmaking stimuli. These effects of training were not predicted, but are consistent with the pragmatic social and motivational context created by the training programme. Also unique to Trained subjects were inferior frontal gyrus activations of bilateral pars opercularis, left pars triangularis and right pars orbitalis.

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In order to improve public health services provided in community

In order to improve public health services provided in community pharmacy, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control should be addressed. Appropriate training and support is needed in order to increase pharmacists’ confidence in providing public health services. Research is needed to establish the attitudes of support staff to allow for support and training to be appropriately targeted for this group. This review should provide a good insight for

providers of education and training for pharmacists. 1. Eades, C. E., Ferguson, J. S. & O’carroll, R. E. Public health in community pharmacy: a systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views. BMC Public Health 2011; 11: 582. 2. Ajzen, I. Perceived Behavioral Control, Self-Efficacy, Locus of Control, Lumacaftor ic50 and the Theory of Planned Behavior1. Journal of applied social psychology 2002; 32: 665–683. Nawal Arif CNWL Trust, London, UK Identify areas of practice at the clozapine clinic which need improvement to

ensure that all patients who are prescribed clozapine have routine physical healthcare checks done, and results are recorded and communicated to the secondary care psychiatric ABT-199 solubility dmso team. No documentation found of physical healthcare checks being disseminated to the secondary care teams. Clozapine clinic nurses have a responsibility for physical health monitoring of community based clozapine population in primary care and ensuring results reported to the secondary team appropriately. The physical health needs second of patients with schizophrenia are often not adequately screened by clinicians. This was recognised by the NICE guidance

for schizophrenia1, which highlighted that general practitioners and secondary care psychiatric services should monitor the physical health of people with schizophrenia at least once a year, and these results should be communicated with the psychiatrist as well as documented in the case notes. The aim of this study is to assess adherence to the clozapine operational guidelines2 at one of the Central North West London (CNWL) nurse-led clozapine clinics, & identify areas of practice that need improvement. An audit tool was designed & a total of 30 out of 60 outpatients adhered to the selected criteria. This included receiving clozapine for at least three years with a blood monitoring frequency of every four weeks. Data was collected from patients’ progress notes and from an electronic record system (JADE®) for the previous three visits to the clozapine clinic over a one-week period in July 2011.

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Other forms oftreatment, such as surgical excision, may be consid

Other forms oftreatment, such as surgical excision, may be considered by anal cancer multidisciplinary teams (MDTs), but surgery is usually reserved for salvage. There are still some areas of uncertainty about optimum treatment, and eligible

patients should Palbociclib order be encouraged to participate in trials. Management of relapse: All patients with suspected or confirmed relapse should be discussed by the anal cancer MDT. Those with confirmed loco-regional recurrence should undergo cross-sectional imaging and all treatment options, including surgery, should be considered by the MDT. Palliative radiotherapy, chemotherapy and palliative care should be discussed with patients who have metastatic disease or who are not sufficiently fit to undergo potentially curative treatment. The incidence of anal cancer in people living with HIV is up to 40 times higher compared with the general

population [3] and it occurs at a much younger age [4–7]. The highest risk is in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) who have an incidence of 70–100 per 100 000 person years (PY) compared with 35 per 100 000 PY in HIV-negative MSM [8]. Recent studies confirmed the high incidence in HIV-positive MSM, other HIV-positive men and in HIV-positive women [9,10]. Importantly, the incidence of anal cancer appears to have risen with the widespread use of HAART [7,9,11–17] and this may relate to the longer survival of people living Thiamet G with HIV allowing time for the progression from HPV infection through the phases of anal dysplasia to invasive anal cancer. It is believed that the pathogenesis of invasive anal cancer resembles that of cervical cancer with human papilloma virus

(HPV) infection leading to anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and ensuing progression from low- to high-grade dysplasia and subsequently, invasive cancer [4,18–20]. This pathogenetic model suggests a role for anal screening by a combination of cytology and high-resolution anoscopy followed by local ablative therapy of AIN. However, as noted in the 2008 BHIVA, BASHH and FFPRHC guidelines, the role of anal screening is not yet proven [1,20,21]. Whilst some centres have instituted screening pilots [22,23], the cost-effectiveness analyses have produced both positive and negative results [24–29]. The presentation of anal cancer can vary from rectal bleeding and anal pain to features of incontinence if the anal sphincters are affected, with some patients being asymptomatic [4]. Many comparative series have shown that people living with HIV who develop anal cancer are younger than HIV-negative individuals with anal cancer [5,30–36]. However, most comparisons suggest that there is no difference in tumour stage at presentation [5,30–39].

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, 2011) In each case, the results of the real time PCR method we

, 2011). In each case, the results of the real time PCR method were in excellent agreement with the respective independent method. To give a short overview, genomic DNA was used as a template in a conventional PCR reaction to amplify a fragment of about 1 kbp. A dilution series of this fragment was prepared and used for real time PCR analysis. A fragment of about 300 bp, internal to the standard fragment, was amplified. The results were used to generate a standard curve. To determine the genome copy

number, cells were lysed and a dilution series of the resulting cell extract was analyzed using real time PCR in parallel to the standards. The results allowed calculating the number of genome UK-371804 clinical trial copies in the cell extract and, in combination with the cell density of the culture, the ploidy level. The following points have to be optimized for every new species under investigation and were optimized for the three find more species of cyanobacteria used in this study: (1) the cell density has

to be quantified with a very low variance, (2) it has to be verified that culture growth is highly reproducible, (3) the method of cell disruption has to be about 100% effective yet leaving the genomic DNA intact, and (4) the real time PCR has to be truly exponential. For cyanobacteria, the method for cell disruption turned out to be the most critical point. Several standard methods (sonification, enzymatic murein digestion, ‘normal shaking’ with glass beads) could not be used, either because the efficiency of cell lysis was too low or because damage of the genomic DNA was too high. Shaking the cells in a Speedmill with 0.1 mm glass beads led to satisfactory results, lysis efficiency VAV2 was higher than 90%, and the genomic DNA was only slightly damaged (fragment sizes from 4 kbp to >20 kbp, data not shown). The amount of beads and shaking time were optimized for every species. To exemplify the results, Fig. S1 (Supporting Information) shows one typical example of a real

time PCR analysis (Fig. S1a), a standard curve (Fig. S1b), a melting point analysis, and an analytical agarose gel of the analysis fragments (Fig. S1c, d). At least three independent cultures were analyzed (and each culture was analyzed at least in triplicates), and average values and standard deviations (SD) were calculated. Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 grew with a doubling time of 24 h. An average growth curve of three cultures is shown in Fig. S2. The results of genome quantification of three independent cultures are summarized in Table 1. At an OD750 nm of 0.6, S. elongatus contained about four genome copies per cell and thus the species is oligoploid. This is termed ‘exponential phase’, although growth of the cultures was not truly exponential, but the OD750 nm of 0.6 was prior to the onset of the linear growth phase (compare Fig. S2).

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Lastly, the benefits of dual-task practice were only examined in

Lastly, the benefits of dual-task practice were only examined in young healthy adults. It remains to be determined whether such effect would be generalised to individuals known to have limited attentional resources, such as elderly individuals and patients with brain damage. In conclusion, our data support the role of dPM in mediating the dual-task practice benefit in which a secondary choice RT task enhanced learning of a primary finger sequence task. This study provides preliminary evidence that dPM is an important node of the planning circuitry that is differentially engaged under dual-task practice. The authors declare that they do not have any competing interests. We thank Department of Radiology

at Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, USA, for providing structural MRI brain scan. We would like to thank Dr. Carolee Winstein for the insightful discussion during designing phase of this study. We acknowledge Mr. Todd D Combs’s assistance in experimental set-up and data collection. Abbreviations B block dPM dorsal premotor cortex FDI first dorsal interosseous M1 primary motor cortex MEP motor evoked potential MRI magnetic resonance imaging R retention test RMT resting motor threshold RT reaction time rTMS repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation “
“Human infants rapidly develop their auditory perceptual abilities and acquire culture-specific knowledge

in speech and music Entinostat chemical structure in the second 6 months of life. In the adult brain, neural rhythm around 10 Hz in the temporal lobes is thought to reflect sound analysis and subsequent cognitive processes such as memory and attention. To study when and how such rhythm emerges in infancy, we examined electroencephaolgram (EEG) recordings in

infants 4 and 12 months of age during sound stimulation and silence. In the 4-month-olds, the amplitudes of narrowly tuned 4-Hz brain rhythm, recorded from bilateral temporal electrodes, were modulated Adenylyl cyclase by sound stimuli. In the 12-month-olds, the sound-induced modulation occurred at faster 6-Hz rhythm at temporofrontal locations. The brain rhythms in the older infants consisted of more complex components, as even evident in individual data. These findings suggest that auditory-specific rhythmic neural activity, which is already established before 6 months of age, involves more speed-efficient long-range neural networks by the age of 12 months when long-term memory for native phoneme representation and for musical rhythmic features is formed. We suggest that maturation of distinct rhythmic components occurs in parallel, and that sensory-specific functions bound to particular thalamo-cortical networks are transferred to newly developed higher-order networks step by step until adult hierarchical neural oscillatory mechanisms are achieved across the whole brain. “
“The prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are thought to play opposing roles in drug-seeking behaviour.

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