g minimum mesh size, number of pots, length and drop of a passiv

g. minimum mesh size, number of pots, length and drop of a passive nets, size of dredges, number of hooks in the longline), access to fishing grounds (e.g. closed areas, Marine Protected areas) and the time spent to fish (vessel usage controls, such as the interruption of trawling during the recruitment and reproduction season of commercial marine species). The output (catch) controls involve direct restrictions

on the amount of marine organisms that can be taken in a certain fishery in a certain period of time, often equivalent to a year or fishing season (catch controls systems such as quotas). Output controls also involve the definition of a minimum size for the fish that can be landed (minimum landing size) and limits of the number of fish that may be landed in a

Apitolisib mw day, generally used for the management of recreational fisheries. In 2009 Crizotinib price the European Commission identified in fleet overcapacity and inefficiency, associated to a general overfishing of stocks [10], two of the main issues threatening the EU fisheries sector. In such a context, in order to specifically tackle the problem of overcapacity and achieve an efficient management and use of resources, economists have suggested to create a property rights system for the access to resources (fishery Rights-Based Management, RBM; [11], [12], [13], [14] and [15]). Property rights are defined as a package of entitlements defining the owner’s rights, privileges

and limitations for use of the resource [16]. Property rights can be more or less effective for fisheries resource management as a function of four features [17]: – Universality: how many of the resources are privately owned, and at what extent property rights are specified. RBM thus covers a wide range of systems: limited licensing, limited transferable licensing, individual non-transferable effort quotas, individual transferable effort quotas, individual non-transferable catch quotas (IQ), individual transferable quotas (ITQ), vessel catch limits, vessel transferable quotas (VTQ), community transferable quotas why (CTQ), and Territorial Use Rights in fisheries (TURF) [15] and [18]. In 2011 the European Commission proposed a set of principles and regulations for the Reform of the Common Fisheries Policy [19] and [20]. In particular, a market-based system of Transferable Fishing Concessions (TFC) was proposed in order to contribute to achieve efficiency, reduce fleet overcapacity and increase economic viability of the fisheries sector. Transferable Fishing Concessions (TFC) can be defined as a form of rights-based fisheries management that entitle the holder to a specific proportion of its Member State’s annual fishing quota or allowable fishing effort.

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We also used the studentized version of the test, which is more r

We also used the studentized version of the test, which is more robust to non-Gaussian variation (Koenker, 1981), and the results remained identical to at least two decimal places. Once the power transformation has been selected, the regression is not used further. For the 20 pools, the selected powers ranged from 0.23 to 0.31, mean 0.27. In other words, the optimal transformations were close to fourth root (power = 1/4). Fig. 1 Obeticholic Acid cost shows the Bland and Altman plots for the first haemagglutinin pool, and the second neuraminidase pool. These plots

also show i) the test wells positive on the T-SPOT criteria (see Introduction), and ii) the control wells which would have been positive on the same criteria, had the test and control status been reversed, hereafter referred to as pseudo-positive. For haemagglutinin, the T-SPOT-positive test wells greatly outnumber the pseudo-positive control wells (247:46), but this is not the case for neuraminidase (58:59). By quartile on the horizontal axis, the proportions positive on the T-SPOT criteria are: 0, 23, 26 and 32% for haemagglutinin and 0, 0, 6 and 16% for neuraminidase. To select a threshold

value for defining positive wells, we use the principle that test minus control values should, on average, be larger than control minus test. Otherwise, there Caspase inhibitor is no evidence of a ‘signal’ over the ‘noise’ of control variation, and any positivity threshold is dubious. To select the threshold we compare the empirical cumulative distribution functions (ECDFs) of i) test–control for those plates with test > control and ii) control–test for those with control > test. The ECDF of a sample is simply the proportion of the data points which lie at or below a given value. The difference between ECDFs can be used to discriminate between a mixture of two distributions. In particular, the value which maximizes the difference in ECDFs also maximizes the probability of correct classification (Stoller, 1954). Hence, for the current purpose, we choose the threshold to be the value which maximizes the difference between the above two ECDFs. Pools whose difference over

control exceeds this value are declared positive. In principle it is possible for this maximum difference in ECDFs to occur at more than Sirolimus manufacturer one value on the horizontal axis. Hence we define the threshold, more precisely, to be the lowest such value on the horizontal axis. This is shown in Fig. 2 for the two selected pools. Greater data values shift the ECDF to the right, making it lower at any given point on the horizontal axis. For haemagglutinin, the ECDFs of test-minus-control and control-minus-test are much more widely separated than for neuraminidase. For haemagglutinin, the maximum difference in ECDFs is 0.22 and occurs at a transformed test-minus-control value of 1 (i.e. a value greater than 1 is considered positive).

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However, other quality measures like the root mean square error (

However, other quality measures like the root mean square error (RMSE) could deteriorate. Wind observations at coastal stations used for the development of the wind adjustment are described by Höglund et al. (2009) (see the previous section). In this study we focused on observations from Landsort for the period 1996–2008 after the recording switched from manual to automatic measurements (Figure 4). Sea ice observations are compiled from BASIS – a data bank for Baltic sea ice and sea surface temperatures (Udin et al. 1981). The digital data base was constructed by extracting information from Vorinostat ic50 reanalysed

ice and surface temperature maps from SMHI and the former Finnish Institute of Marine Research (today, the Finnish Meteorological Institute, FMI). Data are usually measured with a frequency of two maps per week during the ice season. The digital data were interpolated between measurements in order to obtain a daily time series for each year. When measurements were missing at the beginning (end) of the year, the first (last) available recording was used to fill in the dates for the daily time series. The data shown in

the present study are from the years 1980 to 2008. From the sea ice concentration data, the ice extent was calculated by summing all the grid areas with a sea ice concentration greater than 10%. At SMHI gridded SLP, 2 m air temperature, 2 m relative humidity and total cloud cover with a temporal resolution of three hours were compiled from observations since 1980 (e.g. Kauker & Meier 2003, Omstedt et al. 2005). In addition, http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Rapamycin.html 12 hourly accumulated precipitation fields are available at 06 and 18 UTC. Geostrophic wind speed was calculated and reduced to 10 m

wind speed by using a varying factor in the range between 0.5 and 0.6, depending on the distance to the coast (Bumke & Hasse 1989). Note that mean 10 m wind speeds calculated from geostrophic wind fields very likely overestimate mean observed 10 m wind speeds. Data from all available synoptic stations (about 700 to 800) covering the whole Baltic Sea drainage basin are interpolated on a 1° www.selleck.co.jp/products/Neratinib(HKI-272).html times 1° regular horizontal grid with respective latitude and longitude ranges of 50°N to 72°N and 8°E to 40°E. Thus, a two-dimensional univariate optimum interpolation scheme is utilized. Note that all stations are land-based: the data therefore suffer from a land-sea bias. For instance, air temperatures over the sea are expected to be slightly too high during summer and slightly too low during winter. However, the comparison between the ERA40 and the SMHI data bases suggests that the SMHI data also are of high quality over the sea (Omstedt et al. 2005). In the following we will refer to this gridded meteorological data set as the SMHI data.

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(2012) paper The regions selected were examined bilaterally due

(2012) paper. The regions selected were examined bilaterally due to differential processing between hemispheres. Regions in our models included bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG),

bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), bilateral premotor cortex (PMC), and bilateral primary Natural Product Library ic50 motor cortex (M1). In Parkinson 2012, superior temporal gyrus demonstrated increased activation during shift conditions when compared to no shift vocalization. Furthermore, it is involved in auditory-vocal integration and processing of predicted and actual vocal output (Zarate & Zatorre, 2005). Additionally, we investigated IFG, which was shown as an imperative part of the speech/vocalization network and has been identified as a site for additional sensory processing for motor planning and control of Ivacaftor solubility dmso vocalization (Parkinson et al., 2013, Tourville et al., 2008 and Zarate et al., 2010). Premotor cortex has been identified as a location for selecting alternatives to already programed learned responses as well as generating motor commands for speech and vocalization (Tourville et al., 2008 and Zarate

et al., 2010). Primary motor cortex was selected for its involvement in sending motor commands to be executed. Primary motor cortex is functionally connected with IFG giving rise to speech and vocalization making it an optimal candidate for this analysis (Greenlee et al., 2004). Given the limited number of data points made available by sparse sampling, subcortical regions were not included in the bilateral

model. Instead, we focused on cortical contributions to vocalization with and without shifted feedback. Separate models were created for the shift and no shift conditions. Specific coordinates for regions of interest were identified from the unshifted vocalization vs. rest contrast in a group analysis (Table 1). Individual ROIs were created (125 mm3 cubic volume centered around the specified MNI coordinate) for each of the above listed regions using the multi-image analysis GUI (Mango) image processing software (http://ric.uthscsa.edu/mango/) (Lancaster et al., 2012). Individual ROIs were converted from the normalized MNI space back to native subject space allowing Protirelin for the extraction of raw data from each individual subject while ensuring that data were extracted from the identical sites across subjects. Preprocessing was performed using the FSL 4.1.4 (FMRIB Software Library) software package. Head motion was corrected using MCFLIRT and non-brain was removed from the structural image using the BET brain extraction tool. The functional EPI images were smoothed using a FWHM of 5 mm and transformed to MNI space using FSLs registration tools. The FMRI BOLD signal was extracted from each ROI for each subject’s data set and experimental condition.

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At two hospitals in Southwest London comprising an international

At two hospitals in Southwest London comprising an international population with an African heterosexual predominance, there was a 5% prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia in newly diagnosed patients with CD4 count < 100 cells/μL. Almost all of the CRAG positive patients were African, though the statistical power of the comparison of proportion of African patients between the CRAG positive (88%) and negative (54%) groups was limited by the cohort size. This relatively high prevalence of cryptococcal infection, on a par with some African countries, reflects our African HIV patient predominance, and may not

be generalizable to all UK HIV cohorts. Our numbers may also have been augmented by a tertiary centre referral bias of complex HIV patients AZD2281 manufacturer with advanced disease and CM for specialist Infectious Diseases inpatient care. Four of the 8 patients had been transferred to St George’s from hospitals in our sector, for whom we did not have a new HIV diagnoses denominator. Excluding those transfers would result in a conservative estimate of prevalence of cryptococcal infection in newly diagnosed HIV patients with CD4 < 100 cells/μL in southwest London of 3% (4/153), and 5% (4/84) in Africans. In our cohort, almost all the CRAG positive patients were only diagnosed with HIV at the time of presentation with CM. Late HIV diagnoses are not exclusive to resource-limited countries: in 2010, 28% of new UK HIV diagnoses

had CD4 counts < 200 cells/μL17 and in North America in 2008, 33% of newly HIV-diagnosed patients developed

AIDS Cyclopamine manufacturer within one year.18 By ethnicity, late presentation is highest amongst Black Africans,17 and the National Institute for Clinical Excellence is promoting increased HIV testing in this group.19 For our African CRAG positive patients with known time between arrival to the UK and new HIV diagnosis, this ranged from 5 to 16 years, suggesting opportunities for earlier HIV diagnosis and ART, which might have prevented dissemination of latent cryptococcal infection occurring at lower CD4 counts. For those diagnosed late, the question remains whether CRAG screening at HIV diagnosis should be routinely recommended. To be effective, screening needs to be done prior to symptomatic presentation within the antigenemic window, which ranges from weeks to months.8 Current BHIVA guidelines20 recommend RG7420 order excluding cryptococcal infection in symptomatic patients with CD4 < 200 cells/μL but do not advocate routine screening or fluconazole prophylaxis. CM is not a reportable disease: HPA figures of new CM diagnoses in the UK between 2006 and 2011 range from 5 to 28 cases/year, suggesting significant underreporting [C Chau, Health Protection Agency HIV&STI department, personal communication]. Based on these figures and our relatively high prevalence in a London cohort, it is difficult to extrapolate to recommendations for targeted screening in the UK.

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, 2001) Therefore, other (non tendinous) sources causing the sym

, 2001). Therefore, other (non tendinous) sources causing the symptoms should also be taken into account before making the definite diagnosis. Second, little is known about the natural history of symptomatic or asymptomatic RotCuffTears. Therefore, more studies are needed to elucidate the long-term natural history of the different types of RotCuffTears. Third, various factors may influence the decrease of shoulder function in patients with a RotCuffTear. Both atrophy and fatty infiltration (identifying degenerative changes) are reported to give

poor prognosis for the return of rotator cuff see more function in these patients (Schaefer et al., 2002 and Goutallier et al., 2003). Furthermore, a massive RotCuffTear can cause cuff tear arthropathy (Feeley et al., 2009). Mechanical as well as nutritional factors

may also play a role in this process (Neer et al., 1983). The head of the humerus may migrate upward and may wear into acromion/acromio-clavicular joint and coracoid, resulting in cuff tear (mechanical) arthopathy or reduced motion (Neer et al., 1983). With disuse this can lead to osteoporosis and biochemical changes in the cartilage and cuff tear (nutritional) arthopathy (Jensen et al., 1999). Surgery might serve to stop this destructive process, but it is difficult to make an appropriate selection of patients who may (or may not) benefit from a surgical procedure based on the existing literature (Feeley et al., 2009). Additional studies are needed to identify pre-operative clinical prognostic factors in order to decide selleck inhibitor which patients are likely to respond to either non-surgical

or surgical treatment. Moreover, Isotretinoin information is needed that allows predicting which tears will progress and may need surgical intervention. One retrospective study (Maman et al., 2009) reported that progression of symptomatic RotCuffTear in patients treated non-surgical (physiotherapy, activity restriction, and selective corticosteroid injection) is associated with age over 60 years, a full-thickness tear, and fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff muscle(s). According to Zingg et al. (2007), satisfactory shoulder function in patients with a non-operatively managed, moderate, symptomatic massive RotCuffTear can be maintained for at least four years. Additional knowledge about pre-operative prognostic factors and outcome of non-operative treatment options of RotCuffTears may help professionals to decide which treatment may be most suitable for each individual patient. Some limitation of this review and its conclusions need to be addressed. First, we refrained from statistical pooling of the results of the individual trials; this was done because of the high heterogeneity of the trials.

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Failing that, we need technologies such as building sewage treatm

Failing that, we need technologies such as building sewage treatment works and nutrient stripping. While our science and technology can indicate the best means of environmental protection, we need society to accept these measures. Society may desire certain things, such as clean bathing areas, or tolerate others such as having its sewage discharged into the sea because this appears a cheaper option than treatment. However, society needs to be aware of the societal benefits of a clean and managed marine environment but also the ability of the sea to assimilate or support its demands, what might be termed the societal carrying capacity.

Above all, societal health and a quality of life have to be maintained. This means selleckchem we have to acknowledge the ‘feel-good factor’, that society acknowledges the value of maintaining a good marine environment (Mee et al., 2008) but also that society may only focus on high profile aspects, the ‘cute-and-cuddly’ approach and on ‘charismatic megafauna’ such as birds and whales. In short, can we accommodate a society with

both ‘tree-huggers’ and ‘industrial warriors’? Although often as scientists we focus on the ecological significance of change or even the statistical significance, we have to be aware of the societal significance of change – if society thinks there is a problem in the marine environment then by definition there is a problem selleck chemical to be addressed even if we as scientists cannot detect it. Hence this tenet requires we look for cost-effective approaches and consult and engage with the public, NGOs and all stakeholders. There are increasing examples

of marine management which involve public participation but we have to be aware of Vasopressin Receptor the danger of all stakeholders agreeing to a ‘lowest-common-denominator’; for example, if we ask stakeholders where to site a Marine Protected Area then the agreed area may be one that is not wanted for any other activity (i.e. the MPA being not suitable for aggregate extraction, wind-farms, fishing, etc). In the case of nutrients, organic pollution and eutrophication, we need to know that society is willing to fund the technological and economic aspects, that it desires a high quality environment in which its recreation areas are not affected by algal mats or toxic blooms. Conversely we need to know whether society tolerates a poor environmental quality, and any other socio-economic repercussions if nutrients are discharged. In the case of the marine environment, however, those living in the catchments have to be made aware that even if their sewage discharges do not directly affect their quality of life, there are consequences downstream in the estuaries and coastal zones which will ultimately affect them.

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Typically, modern WBMs contain fresh or salt water as the base fl

Typically, modern WBMs contain fresh or salt water as the base fluid and barite (BaSO4) or ilmenite (FeTiO3) as weighting agent. Clays or organic polymers are incorporated to create a homogenous fluid. Other chemicals (e.g. potassium formate and various glycols) are added to achieve viscosity control, shale stability, cooling and lubrication (c.f. Hudgins, 1994 and Neff, 2005). There is a vast literature on the acute toxicity of WBM components, the presentation of which goes beyond the scope of this review, but in general the acute toxicity of WBM is low (Neff, 1987). Monitoring in the NS (Daan and Mulder, 1993, Olsgard and Gray, 1995, Park et al., 2001 and Renaud et al.,

2008) has not revealed any in situ effects of WBM cuttings on sediment macrofauna community structure, implying that any Selleck Enzalutamide such effects, if present, will be confined to bottoms inside the innermost stations in these studies, i.e. nearer than 25–250 m from the discharge point. The effects mechanisms of WBM cuttings after sedimentation have been studied in several laboratory and mesocosm experiments. Dow et al. (1990) reported Torin 1 manufacturer that redox values were depressed for 3 months in sediments mixed with WBM cuttings in an onshore tank system. Schaanning et al. (2008) exposed undisturbed fjord sediment core samples to thinly sedimented

layers of ilmenite based WBM cuttings. Iron sulphide precipitated under caps thicker than 10 mm. Sediment oxygen (SOC) and nitrate consumption, and release of silicate increased immediately under a 12–46 mm cap. The SOC peaked after 9 days and, for most treatments, returned to background levels after 3 weeks. The increase was positively correlated with cap thickness. A 3 mm cap on top of undisturbed sediment box cores from 200 m depth gave no increase in

SOC, and macrofauna biomass and community structure did not change during a 3 month experiment. In a repeat experiment a 3 mm layer of WBM cuttings caused elevated SOC for more than 3 months and 6–24 mm layers for more than 6 months ( Trannum et al., 2010). After 6 months the macrofauna species richness, abundance, biomass, and diversity were negatively correlated with layer thickness. Corresponding layers with natural sediment did not affect the fauna. Trannum (2011) concluded that the most plausible reason Calpain for the fauna effects was sediment oxygen deficiency due to degradation of organic WBM compounds, presumably mud glycol, although chemical toxicity may have played a role as well. It is not likely that glycol degradation will cause the same effects around a cuttings discharge since the glycol most probably will dissipate before the cuttings reach the bottom. Trannum et al. (2011) found only slight differences in macrofauna recolonization in defaunated trays with coarse and fine sediments capped with 6 and 24 mm ilmenite based WBM cuttings deployed in situ at 200 m depth in the Oslofjord, Norway.

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Further studies are needed to identify the molecular mechanism un

Further studies are needed to identify the molecular mechanism underlying PHT-induced genotoxic effects. We wish to thank CNPq, CAPES,

Instituto Claude Bernard, FUNCAP and FINEP for their financial support in the form of grants and fellowship awards. We are also grateful to Dr. A. Leyva for English editing of the manuscript. “
“Over 800,000 tons of dyestuffs see more are annually produced throughout the World, of which 60–70% are azo dyes (Anliker, 1977 and Combes and Haveland-Smith, 1982). At least 3000 azo dyes were in use in the 1990s (Chung and Cerneglia, 1992), produced by the diazotization of aromatic amines, and used to provide color in products manufactured by the textile, leather, printing, paper, food and cosmetic industries. It has been estimated that 10–15% of the total amount of dyes are released PD332991 into the environment

during manufacturing (Nam and Renganathan, 2000, Moutaouakkil et al., 2003 and Mansour et al., 2007), such a discharge being undesirable for esthetic reasons and also because many azo dyes and their breakdown products are toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic to both humans and aquatic life (Spadaro et al., 1992, Van Der Zee et al., 2001, Pinheiro et al., 2004 and Seesuriyachan et al., 2007). The toxic effects of azo dyes, mainly their mutagenicity, can be caused by both the dyes themselves and by their metabolites, such as arylamines and free radicals (Collier et al., 1993 and Weisburger, 1997). One of the criteria used to classify a dye as harmful to humans is its ability to reductively cleave, and consequently to form aromatic amines when

in contact with sweat, saliva or gastric juices. Some of these aromatic amines are carcinogenic and can accumulate in food chains (Pielesz, 1999 and Pielesz et al., 2002). Examples of such aromatic amines are the biphenylamines such as benzidine and 4-biphenylamine, which are present in the environment, constituting a threat to human health and to the ecosystems in general (Choudhary, 1996 and Chung et al., 2000). After the oral ingestion of an azo dye, it can be reduced to free aromatic amines by anaerobic intestinal microflora and possibly by mammalian azo reductase Pyruvate dehydrogenase in the intestinal wall or in the liver (Umbuzeiro et al., 2005). Such a biotransformation can occur in a wide variety of mammalian species including both Rhesus monkeys ( Rinde and Troll, 1975 and Prival and Mitchell, 1982) and humans ( Watabe et al., 1980). The activation of azo dyes involves nitro reduction and azo reduction (Umbuzeiro et al., 2005), and thus it is reasonable that the intestinal microflora play an important role in this activation process (Chung, 1983, Chung et al., 1992 and Lima et al., 2007), and the CYP450 enzymes present in the intestine could also play a part in the activation of these dyes (Umbuzeiro et al., 2005 and Lima et al., 2007).

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25 a u ; n = 5) ( Fig 5) Ang II evoked a consistent constrictio

25 a.u.; n = 5) ( Fig. 5). Ang II evoked a consistent constriction in mesenteric venules and portal vein from SHR. In both vascular preparations, losartan

reduced or nearly abolished the Ang II-mediated constriction, while PD123319 did not modify this response. Ang II-induced venoconstriction was markedly increased by indomethacin, while celecoxib was effective only in mesenteric venules. Whereas vascular responses to check details Ang II were augmented by HOE-140, L-NAME had no effect. By analyzing our results, we found that Ang II-induced constriction in mesenteric venules and portal vein from SHR is dependent of AT1R activation and counterbalanced by COX metabolites and kinin B2R. Several aspects of our results may point to important differences between the venous system of normotensive and hypertensive rats. For instance, Ang II-induced constriction was significantly attenuated in portal vein rings from SHR. Besides, Ang II-induced venoconstriction

was mediated by both AT1R and AT2R in normotensive rats [8]. Considering SGI-1776 molecular weight these findings, we hypothesized that differences between strains could be related to changes in angiotensin receptors expression. In fact, when AT1R and AT2R were evaluated, the AT2R expression was significantly reduced in portal vein from SHR. Although several studies have investigated the influence of AT2R in the vascular system, the functional role of this subtype is not completely elucidated. Authors have demonstrated that AT2R activation can induce both vasodilation [39] and vasoconstriction [34] and [40]. In this regard, a consistent vasoconstrictor effect of Ang II mediated by AT2R in mesenteric arterioles of SHR has been demonstrated [34] and [40]. PIK3C2G Moreover, AT2R also participates of contractile effect of Ang II in portal vein preparations from normotensive rats [8] and [23]. Probably, reduction of AT2R levels in

portal vein from SHR can be responsible for the decreased response observed by us. This result can indicate that AT2R plays a distinct role in the vasculature of normotensive and hypertensive rats. The basic hemodynamic disturbance in established hypertension is an elevation of total peripheral resistance, which is determined mainly by resistance vessels from arterial system. In fact, it is well established that hypertensive patients have similar values of cardiac output in comparison with normotensive controls and the elevated blood pressure is maintained by increase in total peripheral resistance [16] and [26]. Similarly, it was demonstrated that cardiac output is not altered in SHR, a generally accepted model for human essential hypertension [31] and [36]. From this point of view, reduced Ang II response observed in venous from SHR would not be influencing cardiac output control.

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