1 and Fig 2) Archeological investigations clearly show that coa

1 and Fig. 2). Archeological investigations clearly show that coal sands/silts are represented in multiple alluvial deposits in the Lehigh and Schuylkill river drainages, components of the larger Delaware River Basin; however they have not generated sufficient evidence to precisely date the deposits (e.g., Kinsey and Pollack, 1994, Lewis et al.,

DAPT order 1989, Lewis, 1993, Monaghan, 1994a, Monaghan, 1994b, Myers et al., 1992, Myers et al., 1995, Vento, 2002, Wagner, 1989, Wagner, 1993 and Wagner, 1996). Three sites that span the Lehigh and Schuylkill River basins, (1) Nesquehoning Creek Site, (2) Oberly Island Site, and (3) Barbadoes Island Site, are examined here in greater detail to determine the composition Enzalutamide and demonstrate the widespread occurrence and timing of this lithologically unique event. The Nesquehoning Creek archeological site (36CR142) is

located at the confluence of the Lehigh River and Nesquehoning Creek in Carbon County, Pennsylvania (Fig. 2A) (Stewart, 2011 and Stewart et al., 2011). The site occurs within stratified alluvial deposits that range in age from late Pleistocene to modern that overly late Wisconsin braided stream gravels, based on archeology and radiocarbon data (Fig. 3 and Fig. 4). These deposits were subsequently weathered during multiple episodes of pedogenesis, as indicated by buried soils. Artifact deposits are found over an area measuring approximately 150 m in an east-west direction

within the floodplain. Along the Lehigh River the site area pheromone is about 60 m wide (north-south) attenuating to a width of about 15 m on the site’s westernmost margin along the Nesquehoning Creek. The landscape narrows moving from east to west. Elevations gradually decrease from east to west and from north to south. Along the Lehigh River, the site landscape is 4–5 m above stream level. The coal sand/silt deposit represents the thickest historic or modern flood layer and spans the entire site area (Fig. 2 and Fig. 3). It overlies three buried surfaces and related alluvial deposits, two of which are presumed to date to historic times based on the presence of minor amounts of macro- and microscopic coal particles (Stewart, 2011 and Stewart et al., 2011). Unlike the Barbadoes Island Site (discussed below), the Nesquehoning Creek Site was not mapped as having alluvial coal in the epipedon (Soil Survey Staff, 2012a and Soil Survey Staff, 2012b). However, ∼2.5 km upstream along the Nesquehoning Creek, coal riverwash was mapped along a portion of the stream. A large strip mine (Summit Hill mine) in the Southern Anthracite Field occurs immediately south along the ridgetop (Fig. 2A – left of scale bar) (Mantz, 2009). Of interest is the frequent occurrence of burned wood littering the surface of the coal sand/silt deposit. Lumbering and sawmills were local industries during the 19th century.

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Sand released by the erosion of paleo-lobes such as St George I o

Sand released by the erosion of paleo-lobes such as St George I or Sulina (Fig. 1) periodically transferred sand downcoast to construct baymouth barriers and forming the Razelm, Sinoe and Zmeica lagoons (Giosan et al., 2006a and Giosan et al., 2006b). If left to natural forces, such a large scale alongshore sediment transfer may begin as soon as the St. George II lobe is de facto abandoned ( Constantinescu et al., in preparation), once Sacalin Island will attach to the shore with its southern tip or will drown in place. For all periods considered in this study, the shoreline behavior generally

mirrored and was therefore diagnostic for nearshore morphological changes. One exception has been the region downcoast of the St. see more George mouth where wave sheltering by the updrift delta coast and changes in coastal orientation led to the development of a more complex series of longshore transport cells and an alternation of progradation and retreat sectors. Also several other local mechanisms may be acting to reduce the erosion Selleckchem Galunisertib rates locally along the coast. For example, erosion appears to be minimal along the coast of the Chilia lobe where a series of secondary distributaries

still debouche small amounts of sediment. Controlled by the post-damming decrease in fluvial sediment, the sectors of the coast with natural deltaic progradation have shrunk drastically to the two largest secondary mouths of the Chilia distributaries that have become themselves wave dominated. The coast at the St. George mouth has been quite stable probably due to groin-type effects of the river plume and the mouth subaqueous bars and levees (Giosan, 2007). However, the dramatic increase in nearshore erosion

for the anthropogenic Orotic acid period was in large part due to the de facto abandonment of the St. George lobe ( Constantinescu et al., in preparation). Minor depocenters along the coast are not now the result of delta front development per se, but reflect either redirecting of eroded sediments offshore by the Sacalin barrier or trapping near large scale jetties. All in all, the dynamics of the Danube delta coastal fringe clearly shows that the natural pattern of delta coast evolution was a carefully balanced act of deposition and erosion rather than a uniform progradation of the shoreline. And this was aided not only by brute, direct fluvial sediment unloading at the coast but also by more subtle morphodynamic sediment trapping mechanisms. Still the overall budget of the deltaic coastal fringe was in deficit loosing sediment alongshore and offshore. When we take into account the long term history of the Danube delta in addition to insights gained in the current study, we can develop a novel conceptual understanding of its evolution as a function sediment partition between the delta plain and the delta coastal fringe as well as between major and minor distributaries.

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In a further study, we found that secondary impairment of autoreg

In a further study, we found that secondary impairment of autoregulation in the subacute stage after stroke was associated with alterations in the neurovascular coupling mechanism outside the infarcted area using functional magnetic resonance imaging [13]. This underlines the assumption of a secondary endothelial dysfunction leading to both impaired autoregulation and impaired neurovascular coupling. A general autoregulatory dysfunction could thus potentially interfere with functional restitution and thus affect the clinical outcome [13]. We have indeed found an association between impaired autoregulation after ischemic stroke and clinical outcome. The association between autoregulation

and outcome might, however, be linked via the size of MCA infarction. However, the infarction size in the current cohort of patients was mainly derived from demarcated lesions visualized by follow-up PF-02341066 solubility dmso imaging. Dysautoregulation could still have contributed to the final size of infarction. A main methodological problem of the studies reported here is the low spatial resolution of TCD. A small infarct within the MCA territory could also lead to severe focal dysautoregulation without a clear autoregulatory impairment in the main stem of the MCA. To better understand the spatial characteristics of impaired autoregulation

in ischemic stroke (focal Screening Library purchase versus global dysautoregulation) we need new bedside hemodynamic monitoring techniques with a high spatial resolution. One promising but technically demanding method is multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy. A first example of noninvasive autoregulation

mapping with this technology in a patient with severe carotid stenosis is illustrated in Fig. 3[14]. Impairment of dynamic autoregulation detected by TCD in acute ischemic stroke is associated with larger MCA stroke and a poor clinical status. It tends to worsen and generalize during the initial post-stroke days and associates with poor clinical outcome. To better understand the temporal and spatial dynamics of dysautoregulation in acute stroke in relation to Carbohydrate the type and size of infarction, new bedside hemodynamic monitoring techniques (like multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy) are needed. “
“The vertebral artery (VA) as a part of the vertebrobasilar cerebral circulation is one of the main branches of the subclavian artery. The course of the VA is divided into 4 sections [1] and [2]. It originates as section V0 from the posteromedial part of the arc of the subclavian artery and continues cranially. It is followed by the prevertebral segment (V1), which in 90% enters into the costotransverse foramen of the sixth cervical vertebra (C6). Variations as entrance in the C5 or above the C6 vertebra, coiling or kinking of the vertebral artery can occur.

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Shark bycatch on FADs is almost exclusively composed of two speci

Shark bycatch on FADs is almost exclusively composed of two species; silky sharks Carcharhinus falciformis and oceanic white tip sharks Carcharhinus longimanus, together comprising over 90% of the shark bycatch by number [21]. As with many sharks, these species have slow growth rates, mature late and have long reproductive cycles with few offspring, and as such are highly susceptible to population decline from excessive fishing pressure [22]. FADs in particular are also associated with the mortality of sharks and turtles through entanglement buy NLG919 with the net hanging beneath a raft (i.e. ghost fishing), although the extent of this mortality

is not usually estimated [23]. The reason for the natural aggregation of tunas beneath floating objects is not entirely clear although the two most credible explanations for this behaviour are the meeting point hypothesis [24] and the indicator-log hypothesis [19]. The meeting point hypothesis suggests that fish associate with

floating objects to facilitate schooling behaviour and subsequently benefit from this social interaction whilst the indicator-log hypothesis suggests that natural floating objects are indicators of productive habitat given that they originate from nutrient-rich areas (e.g. river mouths, mangrove swamps) and subsequently drift with these patches of productivity into the ocean. Given these possible explanations for the association of tunas with floating objects there is concern that the deployment of large numbers CH5424802 cell line of FADs in the pelagic ocean could change the natural environment of tunas, a theory known as the ‘ecological trap hypothesis’ [25] and [26]. Large numbers of floating objects could potentially modify the movement patterns of tunas and carry associated schools in ecologically unsuitable areas and thus affect their growth rate or increase ZD1839 manufacturer natural mortality and/or predation [26] and [27]. Although this subject has received considerable

research attention, it is difficult to evaluate the impacts of FADs on the ecology of tunas, largely due to uncertainty in how tunas interact with floating objects (e.g. length of association, reasons for joining/leaving an object). Consequently the ecological trap hypothesis remains open to discussion [5] and [9]. FADs have had a strong influence in shaping the spatial dynamics of the purse seine fishery. Floating objects are not distributed evenly throughout the western Indian Ocean and their location at any given time is determined largely by surface currents and winds. Floating logs and branches generally originate from large rivers and mangrove systems and drift with the currents throughout the coastal waters and potentially further offshore. This natural flotsam, which has always been a part of the ocean habitat of tuna, accumulates at particularly high densities in the Mozambique Channel where numerous river systems wash debris into the ocean [28].

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1 or 0 3 μg/kg) and its corresponding OVX-vehicle control group <

1 or 0.3 μg/kg) and its corresponding OVX-vehicle control group VE-821 data. Unless stated otherwise, all the procedures described

below were the same for both experiments. Our study used female cynomolgus monkeys, at least 9 years of age from China. Animals were housed in pairs, and were fed Certified Hi-Fiber Primate Diet 5 K91 (PMI Nutrition International Inc., St. Louis, MO, USA) or 2050C Teklad Certified Global 20% Protein Primate Diet (Harlan Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN, USA) twice daily, with food supplements of Prima-Treats (Bio Serv, Frenchtown, NJ, USA) and/or fresh fruit, and had free access to water. The animal room environment was controlled, with settings targeted at a temperature of 22 ± 3 °C, humidity of 50 ± 20%, 12 h light and 12 h dark photoperiod, and 12 air changes per hour. Animals were acclimated for a period of approximately 5 to 6 weeks after receipt prior to the baseline monitoring period. Only animals considered in good health, with established menses, minimal skeletal abnormalities, closed epiphyseal plates, and normal baseline serum/urine chemistry panels were included (data not presented). A total of 40 animals were used in the study. For each experiment, 20 animals were randomly assigned to either the OVX-vehicle control group or the eldecalcitol group. Following completion of baseline bone mineral density (BMD) measurements by dual-energy

X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), groups were balanced to ensure that age, body IPI-145 weight, whole body bone mineral content (BMC), and lumbar spine BMD were equivalent across groups within each experiment. The surgical procedures were performed under general anesthesia which included an injection of glycopyrrolate, ketamine hydrochloride, and xylazine, followed by isoflurane gas. Daily oral gavage treatment commenced the day following ovariectomy, with either OVX-vehicle control (OVX-Veh1 Thymidine kinase or OVX-Veh2) or eldecalcitol (at 0.1 μg/kg in the first experiment or 0.3 μg/kg in the second experiment), and continued for 6 months.

Body weights were monitored weekly and food consumption assessed twice daily (data not presented). Animals were fasted overnight prior to sample collection. Blood samples were collected prior to surgery and prior to termination after 6 months of treatment. For the second experiment, samples were also collected at month 3. After serum separation, serum calcium and phosphorus were analyzed with a Roche Hitachi 717 Chemistry Analyzer (Hitachi High-Tech Corp., Tokyo, Japan). The serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was measured with a Metra BAP ELISA kit (Quidel Corporation, San Diego, CA, USA) or Tandem-R-Ostase IRMA assay kit (Hybritech Inc., San Diego, CA, USA), and the serum collagen C-telopeptide (CTX) was measured with a CrossLaps ELISA kit (Nordic Bioscience Diagnostics, Herlev, Denmark).

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During his 39 years with DSIR and Landcare Research, he applied h

During his 39 years with DSIR and Landcare Research, he applied his skills tirelessly to a very broad range of topics and projects, the majority involving the ecology and systematics of soil nematodes, www.selleckchem.com/products/z-vad-fmk.html but many also involving other groups of fauna ranging from earthworms to grass grubs, and even Adélie penguins. While we cannot

do justice here to all Gregor’s contributions to soil biology, we now highlight what we see as some of his most significant and interesting contributions both in New Zealand and internationally. • Although there has been much interest in the past two decades in characterising the role of soil nematodes in driving ecosystem processes, doing this in a satisfactory way requires the component nematode taxa to be placed reliably into feeding groups. Together with four overseas colleagues, Gregor prepared an exhaustive and much needed synthesis on which nematode taxa belong in which feeding group (Yeates et al., 1993) that has subsequently been very widely used as the definitive guide by ecologists; it has now been cited >900 times. In addition, Gregor also generously contributed his nematode identification skills to many studies both in New Zealand and abroad and on a range of topics; and the publications

that resulted from these studies would have been far lesser papers had it not find more been for his contribution. As such, Gregor was a highly valued collaborator in projects ranging from studying ecological impacts of invasive plants and animals, to understanding the below-ground community consequences of plant and foliar herbivore diversity and composition, to island geographical principles of treetop epiphytes, to the environmental impacts of land management and intensification. Gregor particularly enjoyed editorial and reviewing work, and served on the editorial boards of several journals. Notably he served on the Editorial Board of Pedobiologia for 29 years, from 1983, until just a few weeks before his death in 2012. During that time he had a reputation Dichloromethane dehalogenase as being amongst the most reliable and active board members of this journal. He was also an active contributor to the content of Pedobiologia,

having published 33 articles in this journal spanning a 42-year period, from 1969 ( Yeates 1969) to 2011 ( Boyer et al., 2011). In addition, Gregor was instrumental in bringing to New Zealand the OECD workshop on Terrestrial Flatworms which was held in Christchurch in 1998, culminating in a special issue of Pedobiologia published later that year with Gregor as Editor (Pedobiologia 42, issues 5–6) that contained 25 papers from that workshop. Gregor’s commitment to soil biology meant that he had a reputation for hard work; one of us (BB) notes that when visiting Gregor to collaborate with him the work often continued until after midnight, and then resuming back in at his lab by about 8.00 am the next morning, a schedule that could be kept up for days at a time.

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Seventy publications (22 4%) were reviews or metaanalyses Five p

Seventy publications (22.4%) were reviews or metaanalyses. Five publications (1.6%) were experimental, whereby treatment and controls were applied to both singly infected and coinfected groups. A majority of the relevant publications concerned coinfections by two pathogen species (249 of 309, 80.5%), but more pathogen species per individual were occasionally reported; the mean number of pathogens was 2.4 and a maximum of 13 pathogens was reported twice in a venous leg ulcer29 and a periodontal infection.30 A

total of 270 pathogen taxa were reported in coinfection publications from 2009, across 1265 reports of coinfections comprising BMN 673 mw 933 different pairs of coinfecting pathogen taxa. All pathogen types (viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungal parasites, helminths) were reported in coinfections; the most common pathogen group was bacteria (Table 1). In terms of specific pairs of reported coinfecting pathogens there was high diversity, but HIV and hepatitis viruses featured relatively highly (Table 1). Effects of coinfection on pathogen abundance and host health were sampled across 173 suitable publications according to pathogen abundance and host health. These publications covered 827 coinfecting pairs of pathogens, involving 183 pathogen species. Among these coinfections, 203 (24.5%) measured the size or direction of effects on

pathogen abundance and 191 (23.1%) measured the size or direction of effects on host health. AUY-922 mw The remainder of coinfections had no reports of the effects of coinfection in suitable publications. Overall, positive effects of coinfection on pathogen abundance were the most common reported across publications (6 negative, 15 neutral, 28 positive reports across 49 publications; Fig. 2A). Among specific pairs of coinfecting pathogens neutral effects exceeded positive effects (10 negative, 95 neutral, 69 positive across 174 unique pathogen pairs; Fig. 2C). In both

cases these patterns were strongly significantly different from both the random null model (grey line on Fig. 2, by publication [X2 = 15.6, d.f. = 2, P < 0.001] and by coinfection [X2 = 82.6, d.f. = 2, P < 0.001]) and from the no-effect null model Amisulpride (black line on Fig. 2, by publication [X2 = 160.3, d.f. = 2, P < 0.001] and by coinfection [X2 = 292.8, d.f. = 2, P < 0.001]). Regarding the impact of coinfection on host health, there was a much greater number of negative effects reported in publications than either positive, neutral or NA categories (51 negative, 12 neutral, 4 positive across 67 publications; Fig. 2B). When data were aggregated by specific pathogen pairs the neutral effects exceed the negative effects (51 negative, 84 neutral, 5 positive across 140 unique pathogen pairs; Fig. 2D). In both cases these patterns were significantly different from both the random null model (grey line, by publication [X2 = 55.6, d.f. = 2, P < 0.001, Fig. 2B] and by coinfection [X2 = 85.5, d.f. = 2, P < 0.001, Fig.

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30 (±1 85) cm/s were significantly different from divers with adj

30 (±1.85) cm/s were significantly different from divers with adjusted mean of 25.02

(±1.85) cm/s (P = 0.018). By controlling the effect of age with partial correlation analysis, a significant reverse correlation was also detected between index of total working and mean flow velocity of right MCA in pilots (r = −0.58, P = 0.027). Little is known about the effect of hypobaric and hyperbaric condition on brain hemodynamic in pilots and divers according to literature review. Our study was performed to assess and compare blood flow velocity indexes between pilots and divers as representatives of hypobaric and hyperbaric conditions. While trying to explore these new features of cerebrovascular investigations, some novel findings were expected to be revealed. In this study, PS341 with controlling the effect of age, divers appeared to have lower flow velocities including peak systolic and end diastolic as well as mean flow velocity. On the other hand, divers

have also a significantly higher resistance index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) which is in favor of low stage atherosclerotic changes of brain arteries. Although the divers were significantly Erastin cell line younger than the pilots, these hemodynamic findings remained or even strengthened after adjusting the age effect between two study groups. These results were more significant in the right MCA which is mostly considered artery for brain hemodynamic studies in previous researches where they have shown no systematic differences in MCA flow velocities measured from the right or left sides by use of similar methodology [16] and [17]. Considering the normal range of PI between 0.6 and 1.1 [18], most of the cases have values within the normal range. However, a PI of lower than 0.6 (stenosis) was detected in the basilar artery of four individuals which all belonged to divers’ group

(25% vs. none, P < 0.05). Furthermore, another 2 divers had a PI of higher than 1.1 which is in favor of attenuated blood flow in basilar artery. In pilots’ group, the entire measured PI's were found to be within the normal range despite the significantly higher mean age in this group. These findings could probably emphasize the potential harmful selleck compound role of hyperbaric working situation of divers compared with hypobaric environment of pilots. A previous study by Boussuges et al. [19] showed numerous hemodynamic changes after an open-sea scuba dive. Although they have investigated hemodynamic changes after 1 h post-diving, an increase in heart rate and decrease in systolic flow velocity were demonstrated. Afterwards, they proposed two possible factors to explain these hemodynamic alterations including low volemia secondary to immersion, and venous gas embolism induced by nitrogen desaturation occurred in divers [19]. Another recent study by Moen et al.

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They can function in energy conservation, generating a chemiosmot

They can function in energy conservation, generating a chemiosmotic gradient for ATP production by sodium ion export. This allows energy generation Everolimus order over a more negative redox range than oxidative phosphorylation does. They may also function in the reverse direction to produce reduced ferredoxin, or in other as yet unknown roles; protons rather than sodium may be pumped in some cases. The six or seven Rnf genes (rnfH

is not always present) are found in different arrangements in a variety of Bacteria and Archaea, usually but not always in a cluster. At least two bacteria (Azotobacter vinelandii and Desulfobacterium autotrophicum HRM2) have two different Rnf gene clusters. The BOGUAY genome encodes two possible copies of genes for five of the seven Rnf subunits (Table S8), and one each for RnfF and RnfH. Selleck Olaparib Perhaps significantly, these are the two least-characterized subunits, and rnfH is not always found in genomes possessing the other six (putative) genes. BLASTP searches (not shown) suggest that where the BOGUAY genome has two copies of an Rnf gene, they have different phylogenies. From this analysis, the BOGUAY genome has both expected and unexpected features. Pathways for sulfide oxidation and nitrate reduction are both present, although we cannot yet explain all aspects of the possible nitrogen respiration pathways. Some experiments addressing this are

suggested in MacGregor et al. (2013b). The answer to the

question whether orange-pigmented Beggiatoaceae are autotrophs or heterotrophs is, so far, “possibly both”. Genome sequences from additional pigmented and unpigmented filaments collected in different environments may provide some insights. Experimental work will be needed to clarify Beggiatoaceae physiology, however. For example, seafloor or shipboard incubations with isotopically labeled carbon substrates could be attempted, to determine which are incorporated directly into Beggiatoaceae biomass under particular conditions. Carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations are likely important variables, as well as sulfide, organic acid, and perhaps hydrocarbon availability. The size of the filaments however might make autoradiography feasible, or phylogenetically specific RNA or lipids could be isolated for stable or radiocarbon isotopic determinations. Removal of epibionts might be attempted to minimize cross-feeding, although they may be required for nutrient supply or waste removal. Gene expression studies might be used to ask which carbon acquisition pathways are activated under a given set of conditions. As in all microbial genomes, there also remain hundreds of hypothetical proteins of unknown function, providing for any amount of future experimentation. Thanks to the Captain and crews of the RV Atlantis and HOV Alvin, and to the shipboard parties of legs AT 15-40 and AT 15-56. Genome sequencing was performed by the J.

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The first dose was infused over at least 30 min; if there was no

The first dose was infused over at least 30 min; if there was no reaction

encountered with administration of the first dose, each subsequent dose was administered over at least 15 min (or per local hospital pharmacy policy) in a maximum of 100 mL 0.9% sodium chloride. Monitoring included assessment of vital signs at baseline and every 15 min during the infusion and 15 min postinfusion. The primary outcome was changed in 6MWT distances from baseline to 12 weeks. The primary outcome was chosen to assess whether iron repletion would improve functional impairment, which is of high importance in geriatric populations. Secondary outcomes included the change from baseline to 12 weeks for hemoglobin measurement, and quantification of the impact of anemia treatment on functional and self-report outcome measures as assessed by the Geriatric Evaluation Panel (GEP), consisting of the following: – Cognitive function based on the Trail Androgen Receptor assay Making Test and four CogState® cognitive subtests; For reporting purposes, the secondary outcomes based on the GEP are summarized as follows: 1. Physical function: 4-m walk speed obtained as a component of the frailty index (see below); The GEP was administered to each subject during the screening

period and at weeks 12 and 24. PCI-32765 in vitro The 6MWT was additionally measured at weeks 6 and 18. Safety outcomes included all clinical and reportable events. We calculated that a sample size of 84 subjects, with 42 subjects per group, would provide 84% power to detect a clinical significant difference of 50 m in change of distances (the primary outcome) between the immediate intervention group and the wait list control group, with a type I error rate of 0.05. This calculation was based Glycogen branching enzyme on a two-sample t-test by assuming a standard deviation of 115 m for the baseline 6MWT distance in both groups and correlations of 0.7 and 0.9 between distances at baseline and 12 weeks for the immediate intervention and wait list control groups, respectively. This sample size

also took into account a 10% missing data rate. Baseline characteristics were summarized using descriptive statistics, with categorical data presented as percentages and continuous data presented as the mean plus/minus standard deviation. Differences between treatment groups were assessed using a chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test (for small frequencies) for categorical data, and a t-test or Wilcoxon test (for non-normal data) for continuous data. The primary endpoint of change in 6MWT distances from baseline to 12 weeks between the two groups was tested using the two-sample t-test. All intent-to-treat patients were included in the primary analysis with an assumption that any missing data were missing completely at random. The impact of missing data in the primary analysis was examined by sensitivity analyses based on best and worst case scenarios for imputing the missing change.

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