01; Fig  1) The staining for

cell apoptosis was signific

01; Fig. 1). The staining for

cell apoptosis was significant in renal interstitium in the GU group than that in the SHO group (Fig. 2), especially at 28 days, and the cell apoptosis index was significantly increased in the GU group when compared with that Cetuximab chemical structure in SHO (P < 0.01, Fig. 1). Interestingly, the apoptotic cell in our observation was mainly derived from RTEC (Fig. 2). When compared with those in the SHO group, in the GU group, the protein expression of PHB in renal interstitium was significantly weakened (P < 0.01, Figs 1,2) and protein expressions of Caspase-3, TGF-βl, Col-IV and FN in renal interstitium were significantly increased (all P < 0.01, Figs 1,2). PHB and Caspase-3 were mainly located in the RTEC in our observation

Selleckchem RG7422 (Fig. 2). Renal tissue of the GU group showed consistently lower PHB mRNA expression, when compared with that in SHO (9 weeks: SHO vs GU = 1.023-fold vs 0.372-fold, 13-week: SHO vs GU = 1.015-fold vs 0.280-fold; all P < 0.01; Fig. 1). There was a negative correlation between PHB protein and index of RIF, cell apoptosis index, or protein expression of Caspase-3, TGF-βl, Col-IV or FN (r = −0.825, −0.886, −0.863, −0.817, −0.948, −0.953; each P < 0.01). Renal interstitial fibrosis, associated with extensive accumulation of ECM constituents in the cortical interstitium, is directly correlated to progression of renal disease.28 Overexpression and deposit of ECM, such as Col-IV and FN, are the important characteristics of RIF. The impaired RTEC plays a crucial role in the progress of RIF.29–31 Of all the cytokines and growth factors, TGF-β1 plays the most important role when compared with others, and the increased expression of TGF-β1 is closely correlated with the development of RIF.32–35 TGF-β1 is known to be one of the

Methocarbamol major mediators, which leads to RIF by inducing the production of ECM (Col-IV and FN) in renal interstitium. So, TGF-β1, Col-IV and FN are the important indicators to evaluate the grade of RIF lesion and the progression of RIF. Caspase-3 is a pivotal effector of the apoptosis machinery36 and Caspase-3 activity is associated with cell apoptosis.37,38 The elevation of cell apoptosis is associated with the development of RIF.39–41 In this investigation, those indicators were evaluated. Prohibitin is regarded as an apoptosis-regulating protein.42 The PHB might play a protective role against the injury in cells or tissue in some studies. Liu et al.15 conducted a study in cardiomyocytes and their data indicated that PHB could protect the cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress-induced damage, and that increasing PHB content in mitochondria constituted a new therapeutic target for myocardium injury. Muraguchi et al.43 performed an investigation in H9C2 cardiomyocytes and found that PHB might function as a survival factor against hypoxia-induced cell death. Ko et al.

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