1; 2 d.f.; P < 0.05), micturition (χ2 = 30.3; 2 d.f.; P < 0.0001) and defecation selleck kinase inhibitor (χ2 = 6.0; 2 d.f.; P < 0.04). Post hoc pairwise
comparisons showed that thresholds of micturition of ES rats were significantly higher than those of both the FS (ΔI50 = 54.5%; χ2 = 15.3; 1 d.f.; P < 0.0001) and IS (ΔI50 = 68.0%; χ2 = 29.0; 1 d.f.; P < 0.0001) groups (Fig. 4). Trotting thresholds were also slightly though significantly increased in IS rats relative to the ES group (ΔI50 = 11.0%; χ2 = 6.9; 1 d.f.; P < 0.01). Threshold differences of remaining responses did not reach Bonferroni's 5% criterion. Threshold differences were further increased 1 week after the end of one-way escape training. Differences were particularly conspicuous for immobility (χ2 = 9.8; 2 d.f.; P < 0.001), trotting (χ2 = 23.2; 2 d.f.; P < 0.0001) and galloping (χ2 = 24.4; 2 d.f.; P < 0.0001). In particular, thresholds of immobility of IS rats were significantly higher than those of ES (ΔI50 = 22.1%; χ2 = 9.8; 1 d.f.; P < 0.001) and FS (ΔI50 = 22.1%; χ2 = 4.9; 1 d.f.; P < 0.02) groups.
Similarly, thresholds of trotting of IS rats were markedly increased relative to both the ES (ΔI50 = 27.9%; χ2 = 21.2; 1 d.f.; P < 0.0001) and FS (ΔI50 = 27.9%; χ2 = 12.3; 1 d.f.; P < 0.0005) groups. Although the IS thresholds of galloping were also significantly higher than those of ES group (ΔI50 = 28.4%; χ2 = 26.7; 1 d.f.; P < 0.0001), they were only marginally higher PRKD3 than those of the FS group (ΔI50 = 15.3%; learn more χ2 = 3.3; 1 d.f.; P < 0.06). Galloping was the response most affected in FS rats. In fact, FS galloping thresholds were slightly though significantly increased compared to ES group (ΔI50 = 11.3%; χ2 = 7.8; 1 d.f.; P < 0.005). In contrast, group thresholds did not differ with respect to jumping, micturition
and defecation responses (Fig. 5). Threshold changes across stimulation sessions are presented as the percentage of the baseline value prior to one-way escape training (Fig. 6). The overall comparison showed that between-session thresholds were statistically significantly different (χ2 > 5.99, 2 d.f., P < 0.05) for all defensive responses except defecation (in all groups), micturition (in FS group) and jumping (in ES group). Most notably, 2 and 7 days after the end of one-way escape training, IS rats showed robust increases in the thresholds of immobility (35 and 39%), exophthalmos (41 and 38%), trotting (31 and 54%) and galloping (34 and 57%), respectively. In contrast, rats exposed to ES presented only small or moderate threshold increases for immobility (23 and 16%), exophthalmos (31 and 21%), trotting (20 and 23%) and galloping (17 and 15%) in respective stimulation sessions. Although the thresholds of jumping were also significantly increased in both ES (14 and 17%) and IS (22 and 30%), there were no significant differences amongst groups.