12 (1.01-1.25) 19 RR relative risk, CI confidence interval. Of the seven Pitavastatin mw studies included in our meta-analysis, four were case–control studies [17–20] and three were cohort studies [21–23]. The four case–control studies were from the United States, Poland, England, and Australia [17–20], with the U.S. study including maximum sized sample. Ruboxistaurin The seven studies included
99,807 women, with age set at higher than 38 years, with one study setting age as more than 50 years. The remaining 16 identified articles not included in our meta-analysis were examined. Risk factors related to psychiatric, psychological, and social disorders have been described . In addition, the psychological factors and serum biochemical indices defining the association between life
events and myeloid-derived suppressor cells were evaluated . Studies have also evaluated the psychosocial approach [26–28], with life events contributing to delays in diagnosis and treatment . Several studies referred to other types of stress (e.g. stresses associated with work, activities of daily life, or lifestyle, as well as post-traumatic stress) [27, 29–33]. Indeed, one study found no association between life events and the incidence of breast cancer . Association between striking life events and the incidence of primary breast cancer ORs for primary breast cancer occurrence MRT67307 in vitro related to striking life events are shown in Table 1. In the present study, striking life events was used as a marker of serious psychological events, including stress of life events and great life events. Analysis of ORs values and 95% CIs regarding the association
between stressful life events and the Exoribonuclease risk of breast cancer occurrence varied widely, due to high heterogeneity in the consistency test. We therefore abandoned the fixed effects model, with a random effects model used in the meta-analysis (Figure 1). Figure 1 Meta-analysis of the relative risk, or odds ratio, for the association between striking life events and primary breast cancer incidence. Solid squares represent risk estimates for the individual studies, with the size of the squares proportional to the sample size and the number of events. Horizontal lines denote 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The diamond shows the confidence interval for the pooled relative risks. Positive values indicate an increased relative risk for primary breast cancer development. Test for overall effect: Z = 2.99, P < 0.01; chi-square test for heterogeneity = 80.53, degrees of freedom = 6, P < 0.001; I 2 = 93%. The consistency of the seven studies was poor and varied markedly (p < 0.00001, Figure 1). Random effects model analysis showed that, in regard to striking life events, the overall OR was 1.51 (95% CI 1.15 – 1.97), indicating that the risk of breast cancer was 1.5-fold higher in populations with than without striking life events (p = 0.003).