16 Upper end 823 0x Shaft 823 2x Unspecified 823 8x 6 Wrist (clo

16 Upper end 823.0x Shaft 823.2x Unspecified 823.8x 6. Wrist (closed) Pathologic 733.12 Forearm upper end 813.0x Shaft 813.2x Lower end 813.4x Unspecified 813.8x 7. Spine/vertebral (closed) Pathologic 733.13 Cervical, closed 805.0x Dorsal, closed 805.2x Lumbar, closed 805.4x Unspecified, closed 805.8x Statistical analysis Patients were stratified into two groups, FRAC and ICD-9-BMD, based on reason for inclusion. Descriptive statistics,

including proportion of patients treated, were used to characterize the baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of patients in both groups. A logistic regression was used to identify predictors of osteoporosis treatment with an oral bisphosphonate (risedronate, alendronate, or ibandronate). Patients were identified as treated if they had a prescription for one of the

three drugs on the index date or up to 90 days post-index date. Regressions were run C59 separately for each of the two patient groups. Independent variables included age at index date (50–64, 65–74, and 75+), BMI (≤24 kg/m2, 25–29 kg/m2, 30–34 kg/m2, and 35+ kg/m2), smoking status, excessive alcohol consumption, fall history, insurance status (Medicare, private insurance, or no insurance), presence of an order for a BMD test, and BMD PD173074 nmr T-score. The value for the BMD T-score variable was the test result for the hip, if available. If the hip T-score was not available, a spine test result was used, and if neither a hip or spine result was available, a forearm score was used. Values for the BMD T-score variable included test results within the first 90 days after the index date and was dichotomized based on

whether the value was greater than or less than or equal to −2.5. Therefore, most patients in the FRAC group, who by definition did not have a T-score ≤−2.5 on the index date, may still have a value for this variable below this threshold if it was measured in the first 90 days post-index. LXH254 order Furthermore, while it was not possible to link the cause of the fracture for patients in the FRAC group to a specific fall, if the fracture was the result of a fall, that fall would be captured by the fall history variable. Also included were diagnoses of comorbidities associated with bone health such as aortic atherosclerosis, diabetes, thyroid disease, and malnutrition. Indicators for the use of drugs over the study period whose exposures are associated with fracture risk were also included (e.g., chemotherapy, oral corticosteroids, thyroid replacement therapy, and furosemide therapy). Finally, a Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score was calculated for each patient based on comorbidities documented on or one year prior to their index date [26]. Initially, a forward selection process was undertaken by running univariate regressions with each independent variable. Variables whose coefficients had p values of ≤0.10 were chosen to be included in the full multivariate regression.

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