(2) The percentage of physically inactive persons (≤1 hour per we

(2) The percentage of physically inactive persons (≤1 hour per week) was lower in high-altitude mountaineers (ca 7%) when compared to hikers (ca 17%).6 In contrast to hikers and alpine skiers, high-altitude mountaineers visit mostly altitudes >3,000 m. In addition to the high cardiovascular demands, hypoxia-induced sympathetic activation may result in more adverse effects in high-altitude mountaineers with CVD (eg, increased risk for sudden cardiac death, lower myocardial ABT-199 clinical trial ischemia threshold, exacerbated arrhythmias, and hypertension).2,8,9

The applied method allows only an estimation of the frequency of CVD among high-altitude mountaineers and at least two main weak points have to be discussed. (1) Approximately 30% of the overnight guests during the summer season were recorded by the survey. The results may be biased by the fact that persons with CVD are either more or less likely to fill in a questionnaire than those without CVD. But in our previous investigations, we detected no difference in the prevalence of CVD when comparing interviewer-collected and deposited questionnaires.6,7 (2) We cannot exclude a possible information bias because our results were reliant on the self-reported data of the interviewed persons. As a consequence, the real prevalence may have been underestimated. High-altitude mountaineering seems to be predominantly practiced selleckchem by

healthy and fit individuals. Nevertheless, a considerable percentage of persons with preexisting CVD was measured in the elderly high-altitude mountaineers (age: >60 y) independent of gender. It seems that preexisting CVD are not considered as a limiting factor or contraindication in high-altitude mountaineers. Future research has to deal with physiological (eg, exercise intensities) and epidemiological aspects (eg, risk factors for cardiovascular events) in high-altitude mountaineering. Screening for CVD and, if required, proper medical therapy is proposed for elderly individuals planning to participate in high-altitude mountaineering. Mountaineers with CVD should follow general Liothyronine Sodium recommendations for high-altitude

exposures and specific mountain sport activities.10 The work was funded by the Austrian Alpine Club (OeAV). The authors state they have no conflicts of interest to declare. “
“We describe a case of atypical loiasis presenting with a chronic pleuroperitoneal effusion in a 50-year-old woman from the Democratic Republic of Congo. Effusions disappeared with conventional treatment and no recurrence was detected after 4 months of follow-up. Such cases of loiasis involving visceral sites have been unusually reported in the literature. Loiasis is endemic in Western and Central Africa and Loa loa is one of the nine nematodes using humans as definitive host.1 The typical presentation includes transient edematous lesions of the extremities (Calabar swellings), migration of the adult worm through the conjunctiva, and blood hypereosinophilia.

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