, 2010) However, some fungal genomes exhibit characteristics (su

, 2010). However, some fungal genomes exhibit characteristics (such as compact genomes, few introns and short intergenic regions) similar to prokaryotic genome, thus permitting the use of surrogate methods in genomewide searches of incidences of HGT (Mallet et al., 2010). While surrogate methods do present a heuristic approach for http://www.selleckchem.com/products/dorsomorphin-2hcl.html detecting putative HGT events, comparative analyses have shown

that surrogate methods fail to identify a common set of genes involved in HGT (Ragan, 2001). Therefore, it is my opinion that when investigating putative HGT, surrogate methods should never be used in isolation; furthermore, positive results should be carefully scrutinized and validated by more robust methodologies such as phylogenetic inference. A typical in silico bioinformatics pipeline for detecting HGT in genomic sequences is shown in Fig. 2. As all HGT detection methods have limitations, it is recommended that a total evidence Epacadostat approach is undertaken where several independent methods are used and cross-corroborated before inferring that a HGT event has occurred (Fitzpatrick, 2009). HGT requires foreign genetic material to enter the recipient cell, be incorporated into the host genome and successfully express a functional

protein. To avoid pseudogenization, the protein should provide a selective advantage to the recipient species. While lateral transfer has been observed for a number of selfish genetic elements including mycoviruses (van Diepeningen et al., 1998), plasmids (Kempken, 1995), group I introns (Gonzalez et al., 1998) and transposons (Belbahri et al., 2008), the mechanisms of HGT in fungi are not fully understood. A number of possible mechanisms have been reported, however. For example, bacterium to Saccharomyces cerevisiae conjugation

followed by DNA exchange via bacterial conjugative plasmids has been observed (Heinemann & Sprague, 1989). Similarly, no dedicated DNA uptake mechanisms have ever been reported in S. cerevisiae, yet transformations have been observed under specific artificial laboratory conditions Liothyronine Sodium (Nevoigt et al., 2000). Saccharomyces cerevisiae was also one of the first fungal species to be amenable to Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT; Bundock et al., 1995). A number of fungal species have since been shown to undergo ATMT under specific laboratory conditions including the presence of acetosyringone (de Groot et al., 1998; Chen et al., 2000), a phenolic plant wound hormone that is involved in plant-pathogen recognition that induces the expression of virulence genes in A. tumefaciens.

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