, 2011) In addition, jararhagin was able to digest the plasminog

, 2011). In addition, jararhagin was able to digest the plasminogen generating the angiostatin peptide with preserved biological function (Ho et al., 2002). The easy and low cost purification protocol of jararhagin

could be an interesting alternative to other matrix metalloproteinases to produce anti-angiogenic peptides or other functional cryptic peptides. Although the literature has a great body of experimental data exploring the biological effects selleck inhibitor of jararhagin, there are still some aspects to be clarified. The hydrolysis of fibrillar collagens seems to be crucial for jararhagin-induced hemorrhage. However, this effect is observed mostly in vivo, and degradation of this substrate in vitro appears to occur only in certain situations with denaturation of the fibrillar structure. This could be explained by a disorganization of the fibrillar structure induced by a helicase-like activity of jararhagin allowing collagen digestion Anti-diabetic Compound Library nmr in vivo. However, why this effect is not observed in vitro and experimental data confirming this hypotheses are still lacking. Likewise, the contribution of jararhagin-induced endothelial cells damage in its hemorrhagic activity is unclear.

Both hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic SVMPs induce detachment and apoptosis of endothelial cells at comparable levels ( Baldo et al., 2008). Furthermore, hemorrhagic lesion induced by jararhagin occurs much earlier than the induction of apoptosis of endothelial cells in vitro, and apoptosis of vascular cells was not detected on hemorrhagic tissue injected with a SVMP from B. asper venom ( Jimenez et al., 2008), suggesting that apoptosis of these cells may not occur in vivo. These apparently discrepant results obtained in vivo and in vitro may be due to the absence of experimental conditions that accurately model a complex MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit microenvironment observed in vivo. In this regard, three-dimensional and/or co-culture systems could be interesting approaches to investigate the action of SVMPs on different cell cultures. These studies can bring new insights

on the mechanisms involved on inhibition/activation of signaling pathways related to cell death and pro-inflammatory activity induced by jararhagin. Financial support: Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, CNPq; Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, FAPESP and INCTTox Program of CNPq/FAPESP. The authors also thank to Alexsander Seixas de Souza for technical support with the Zeiss LSM 510 META confocal microscope at Laboratório de Parasitologia, Instituto Butantan. “
“The Indigofera genus from the Fabaceae family contains approximately 700 different species ( Aylward et al., 1987). Indigofera linnaei (= Indigofera dominii, Indigofera enneaphylla) in Australia ( Bell and Hall, 1952; Hooper et al.

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