2:2:1 L-Leucine induces albumin synthesis in hepatic cells via t

2:2:1. L-Leucine induces albumin synthesis in hepatic cells via transcription factors such as mammalian target of rapamycin.[1-3, 17] BCAA Palbociclib mouse granules were developed originally for the treatment of hypoalbuminemia associated with decompensated cirrhosis. However, subsequent studies found various other pharmacological actions of this drug. Therapy using BCAA granules improves hypoalbuminemia.[16-19] In addition, such therapy also inhibits cirrhosis-related complications such as esophageal varices and ascites,[17, 18, 20] reduces insulin resistance[17, 21, 22] and oxidative stress,[17, 23] improves fatty-acid metabolism,[17, 24] stimulates the immune system,[17, 25, 26] and inhibits angiogenesis.[17, 21, 27]

The most noteworthy pharmacological action of BCAA granules, however, is the inhibition

of hepatic carcinogenesis (Table 1).[17, 19, 20, 22, 27-29] Based on the significant inhibition of hepatic carcinogenesis observed after therapy using BCAA granules in patients with liver cirrhosis with a body mass index of 25 kg/m2 or more shown in a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled study (the Lotus Study), the 2010 guidelines for comprehensive treatment of hepatitis virus-related cirrhosis in Japanese patients recommend the use of BCAA granules to preserve liver function and inhibit hepatic carcinogenesis.[16-19, 28, 30] Conversely, the American Society for Parental and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) and the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism recommend that BCAA supplementation be carried out only in cirrhotic patients with chronic AZD9291 clinical trial hepatic encephalopathy that is refractory to pharmacotherapy.[31, 32] Here, we review the clinical significance of therapy using BCAA granules in different treatment approaches

for cirrhosis Cetuximab research buy and HCC (i.e. hepatectomy, liver transplantation, RFA, TACE and molecular-targeted agents) mainly based on the published work as well as our own data published between 1997 and 2013. We searched the published work in the PubMed database, and the search strategy was based on the following terms: “branched-chain amino acid”, “liver cirrhosis”, “liver function”, “complication”, “clinical outcome”, “carcinogenesis”, “hepatocellular carcinoma”, “recurrence”, “hepatectomy”, “liver transplantation”, “RFA”, “TACE” and “molecular-targeted therapy”. In cirrhotic patients, the plasma level of BCAA is positively correlated with the serum albumin level. Such a correlation is seen only in patients with chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis. The albumin–BCAA correlation and the inability of cirrhotic patients to maintain an adequate plasma level of BCAA with diet alone serve as the theoretical rationale for the use of BCAA granules for the treatment of cirrhosis. In cirrhotic patients, BCAA uptake in skeletal muscle is increased for ammonia detoxification and energy production and, in turn, the plasma level of BCAA and albumin production decrease.[1-3] Yatsuhashi et al.

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