3a); and 0·01 (0·01–6·7) and 4·3 (0·01–17·3) in response to 33-me

3a); and 0·01 (0·01–6·7) and 4·3 (0·01–17·3) in response to 33-mer, respectively, at days 0 and 6 (P < 0·04) (Fig. 3b). Surprisingly, although these donors repeated the wheat challenge at least 3 months after the first one, and were on a strict gluten-free diet regimen, the IFN-γ-SFC elicited by gliadin at day 0 of the second challenge was increased if compared to the SFC obtained just before the first challenge

(median 15·0, interquartile range 7·8–35), although the increase selleck compound did not reach statistic significance (P < 0·078). Similarly, the responses observed at day 6 of the second challenge exceeded those elicited during the first challenge (median 61·0, interquartile range 25·6–166·0), although the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0·23). Conversely, the increment of reactivity to the 33-mer peptide was reduced after the second challenge when compared to the first challenge (median 22·0, interquartile range 0·33–139·67, P = 0·1). When we evaluated individual reactiveness after the second challenge, seven of 13 (53%) subjects were responsive to gliadin and/or 33-mer (Table 2). Interestingly, these seven patients also had a positive response to the first challenge (Table 2). Conversely, patients 4, 7, 10 and 12 responded to neither IWR-1 nmr the first

nor the second challenges, while the remaining two patients (patients 13 and 14), who responded to neither gliadin nor 33-mer after the second challenge, had a substantial increase of IFN-γ-secreting cells at the first challenge. Next, we investigated whether the time elapsed between the two

challenges might have influenced the individual responsiveness, but no correlation was observed with the increment of response to gliadin and to 33-mer (Pearson’s correlation: r = −0·264, P > 0·3 and r = 0·312, P > 0·2, respectively). Overall, our findings indicated a concordance of responsiveness to the short wheat challenges (considered either as positive or negative responses) in 11 of 13 oxyclozanide (85%) of the patients, and confirm that short gluten consumption is a valid and reproducible tool to monitor immune reactiveness to gluten. The detection in peripheral blood of gluten-reactive T cells that have been activated, or primed, in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue during gluten consumption might have important therapeutic and diagnostic implications in CD. In this context, the short-term oral wheat challenge, reported first by Anderson and co-workers, is a simple and safe method that allows analysis and quantification of gluten-reactive T cells raised in peripheral blood of coeliac patients after 3 days of wheat consumption [4–6].

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