4e, P < 0·05) When used alone, 0·01 and 1 μm BIBN4096BS had no e

4e, P < 0·05). When used alone, 0·01 and 1 μm BIBN4096BS had no effects on basal TNFα release (Fig. 4e). When used in co-treatment with LPS, 1 nm CGRP had no effect on TNFα release whereas 10 nm CGRP induced a significant increase (Fig. 4f, P < 0·001). In contrast, 100 nm CGRP markedly suppressed LPS-induced TNFα release (Fig. 4f, P < 0·05). CGRP8-37 (100 nm) significantly suppressed LPS-induced TNFα release (Fig. 4f, P < 0·05) wherease 1 μm CGRP8-37 significantly enhanced LPS-induced TNFα release (Fig. 4f, P < 0·001). However, 10 μm CGRP8-37 had no effect on LPS-induced TNFα release. At a lower concentration, BIBN4096BS (0·01 μm) significantly enhanced LPS-induced TNFα release (Fig. 4f, P < 0·001).

At concentrations of 0·1 and 1 μm, BIBN4096BS had no effect or significantly reduced LPS-induced TNFα release,

respectively (Fig. 4f, P < 0·05). Compared with vehicle, 10 nm CGRP significantly increased basal IL-6 release (Fig. 5a, P < 0·05), an effect learn more reversed by 10 nm CGRP8-37 (not shown) while 100 nm CGRP had no effect. When treated alone, 0·1 μm https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Roscovitine.html CGRP8-37 had no effect while 10 μm CGRP8-37 significantly increased basal IL-6 release (Fig. 5a, P < 0·001). At the lower concentration, 0·01 μm BIBN4096BS had no effect on basal IL-6 release while 1 μm BIBN4096BS significantly increased the release (Fig. 5a, P < 0·05). Compared with LPS treatment, only 10 nm CGRP significantly enhanced LPS-induced IL-6 release (Fig. 5b, P < 0·05) whereas 1 and 100 nm CGRP had no effects. Neither CGRP8-37 nor BIBN4096BS at all concentrations had any effect

on LPS induced IL-6 release (Fig. 5b). Either alone or co-treated with LPS, 1, 10 and 100 nm CGRP had no effect on basal or LPS-induced IL-10 release from RAW macrophages (Fig. 5c,d). When treated alone, 0·1 μm CGRP8-37 had no effect on basal IL-10 Tangeritin release whereas 10 μm CGRP8-37 significantly increased basal release of IL-10 from RAW cells (Fig. 5c, P < 0·001). When treated alone, 0·01 μm BIBN4096BS had no effect while 1 μm BIBN4096BS significantly increased basal release of IL-10 from RAW macrophages (Fig. 5c, P < 0·01). At concentrations of 0·1 and 10 μm, CGRP8-37 had no effect on LPS-induced IL-10 release whereas 1 μm CGRP8-37 significantly enhanced LPS-induced IL-10 release (Fig. 5d, P < 0·05). At all concentrations, BIBN4096BS had no effect on LPS-induced IL-10 release (Fig. 5d). In the present study, we demonstrated that LPS, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, increased CGRP release from RAW 264.7 macrophages. The LPS-induced CGRP release was blocked by the inhibitors of transcription and protein synthesis, suggesting that the effect of LPS occurs at both transcription and translation levels. The finding that LPS can induce CGRP release in RAW macrophages is consistent with earlier reports showing that LPS facilitates the production of CGRP in cultured rat peritoneal macrophages10 and in human monocytes.

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