5 suggest that mCRAMP is negatively regulating the antibody respo

5 suggest that mCRAMP is negatively regulating the antibody response to a TD antigen, TNP-OVA/Alum. Since our in vitro data suggest a differential regulation of B and T cells, we sought to determine the mechanism by which more TNP-specific IgG1 is made by Camp−/− mice compared with WT mice. ELISpot analysis of the spleens at 4 days after the

second immunization with TNP-OVA/Alum shows that Camp−/− mice have more TNP-specific IgG1+ ASCs than WT (Fig. 6A). Since our in vitro data in Fig. 4 suggested that mCRAMP had no effect on isotype switching to IgG1, one potential explanation could be that selleck chemicals llc the production of IL-4 was increased, similar to our findings in Fig. 2 with purified T cells in vitro. RT-PCR was performed to determine the level of total IL-4

mRNA in total spleen. Figure 6B shows that Camp−/− spleens contain more IL-4 mRNA than WT spleens. In addition, intracellular staining for IL-4 showed that the numbers of CD4+IL-4+ T cells were significantly increased in the Camp−/− mice (Fig. 6C). Overall, these results suggest that mCRAMP negatively regulates TD antibody responses by regulation of T-cell IL-4 production. Analysis of AMPs has shown that their cellular expression is widespread and their functions are diverse. Camp−/− mouse are more susceptible to, and fail to clear, numerous infections [1], supporting a role for AMPs in host defense and immune regulation. Our data showing that mouse B and T cells are capable of expressing and responding to mCRAMP further add to this complexity.

Importantly, while the use of Camp−/− mice has aided in the study of AMP biology, Erlotinib research buy it is not definitive in differentiating the direct antimicrobial activity from the immune regulation. In addition, our data show that mCRAMP has the ability to regulate B and T cells in vivo, although there is still no clarity as to the exact source of mCRAMP and the mechanism by which it regulates B- and T-cell function. Using the Camp−/− mouse 24, we investigated the role of mCRAMP in regulating adaptive immune responses. Our data show that Camp−/− mice immunized with TNP-OVA/Alum produced more TNP-specific IgG1 antibody Abiraterone when compared with WT mice. In contrast, Kurosaka et al. showed that mCRAMP acted as an immune adjuvant and enhanced TD antibody production in WT mice 3. The most obvious difference in the experiment design, which may contribute to the opposing findings, is that we studied effects of endogenously produced mCRAMP by comparing antibody responses in WT versus Camp−/− mice, while Kurosaka et al. 3 added additional exogenous mCRAMP to WT mice. The administration of exogenous mCRAMP to a WT mouse that is also making mCRAMP in response to the immunization may or may not accurately model the role of mCRAMP during an antibody response. In support of this possibility, previous studies have demonstrated that exogenous and endogenous mCRAMP function differently in macrophage activation 15.

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