A number of compounds are synthesized every year and discharged i

A number of compounds are synthesized every year and discharged into the environment. The synthesized compounds and their biodegradation products exert constant chemical selective pressure on wildlife, not only Z-VAD-FMK cell line on animals and plants but also on microorganisms.

Therefore, it is very important to understand the dynamic relationship between the microbial diversity and the microbial capacity for the biodegradation of synthesized compounds in the environment. Nonionic surfactant alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEOn) are easily degraded to endocrine disruptors in the environment (White, 1993; Laws et al., 2000; Shibata et al., 2007). Our previous study showed that bacteria that can degrade APEOn to estrogenic and antiandrogenic metabolites are ubiquitous in paddy fields in Japan (Nishio et al., 2002, 2005). Moreover, eight isolates, which belong to the Sphingomonadaceae such as Sphingopyxis ginsengisoli, Sphingopyxis macrogoltabidus, Sphingopyxis soli, Sphingopyxis terrae, and Sphingobium cloacae, were identified as APEOn-degrading bacteria in our previous study. As bacteria have

been found to play an important role in the biodegradation of man-made chemicals in their lifecycle impact assessment, it is important to establish a rapid and simple identification method for bacteria. To achieve that purpose, we focused learn more on establishing an advanced bacterial identification

method. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight Edoxaban mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is one of the most widely used mass-based approaches for bacterial identification and classification because of the simple sample preparation and extremely rapid analysis without any substantial costs for consumables (Fenselau & Demirev, 2001; Lay, 2001; Mellmann et al., 2008). Bacterial identification and classification by MALDI-TOF MS takes two general approaches to data analysis; namely, pattern recognition and biomarker assignment based on bacterial genomic databases, and has been shown to be sufficient for the identification at the genus, species, and subspecies level, and discrimination at the strain level (Arnold & Reilly, 1998; Welham et al., 1998; Lay, 2001). Although ribosomal subunit protein-based bacterial identification by MALDI-TOF MS as a biomarker assignment enables phylogenetic analysis (Teramoto et al., 2007, 2009; Sato et al., 2011), this procedure has a theoretical weakness. As S10-spc-alpha operon encodes half of the ribosomal subunit protein and is highly conserved in eubacterial genomes, a theoretical ribosomal protein database can be constructed by sequencing these operons.

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