A vernier consists of two vertical bars that are horizontally off

A vernier consists of two vertical bars that are horizontally offset. When the two verniers are separated by a blank

screen (interstimulus interval, ISI), the two verniers are perceived either as two separate entities or as one vernier with the offset moving from one side to the other depending on the ISI. In both cases, their offsets can be reported independently. Transcranial magnet stimulation (TMS) over the occipital cortex does not interfere with the offset discrimination of either vernier. Trametinib concentration When a grating, instead of the ISI, is presented, the two verniers are not perceived separately anymore, but as ‘one’ vernier with ‘one’ fused vernier offset. TMS strongly modulates the percept of the fused vernier offset even though the spatio-temporal position of the verniers is identical in the ISI and grating conditions. We suggest that the grating suppresses the termination signal Z-VAD-FMK cell line of the first vernier and the onset signal of the second vernier. As a consequence, perception of the individual verniers is suppressed. Neural representations of the vernier and second vernier inhibit each other, which renders them vulnerable to TMS for at least 300 ms, even though stimulus presentation was only 100 ms. Our data suggest that stimulus features can be flexibly integrated in the occipital cortex, mediated by neural interactions

with outlast stimulus presentations by far. “
“Archer fish are known for their unique hunting method, where one fish in a group shoots down an insect with a jet of water while all the other fish are observing the prey’s motion.

To reap its reward, the archer fish must reach the prey before its competitors. This requires fast computation of the direction of motion of the prey, which enables the fish to initiate a turn towards the prey with an accuracy of 99%, at about 100 ms after the prey is shot. We explored the hypothesis that direction-selective P-type ATPase retinal ganglion cells may underlie this rapid processing. We quantified the degree of directional selectivity of ganglion cells in the archer fish retina. The cells could be categorized into three groups: sharply (5%), broadly (37%) and non-tuned (58%) directionally selective cells. To relate the electrophysiological data to the behavioral results we studied a computational model and estimated the time required to accumulate sufficient directional information to match the decision accuracy of the fish. The computational model is based on two direction-selective populations that race against each other until one reaches the threshold and drives the decision. We found that this competition model can account for the observed response time at the required accuracy. Thus, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the fast response behavior of the archer fish relies on retinal identification of movement direction.

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