Ab stimulations were performed via crosslinking of the stimulatin

Ab stimulations were performed via crosslinking of the stimulating Abs (CD3 [0.5 μg/mL OKT3], CD28 [5 μg/mL CD28.2] or CD2 [3PTH9, 10 μg/mL] with 7.25 μg/mL goat anti-mouse Ab at 4°C). For the stimulation, T cells were set at a cell density of 4×106/mL. To analyze immune synapses, untransformed human T cells were purified from peripheral blood and incubated with SEB-loaded APCs (Raji B-cells; 5 μg/mL SEB) essentially as described previously 5, 8, 16. Briefly, T cells and APCs that were loaded with or without 5 μg/mL SEB were mixed at a ratio of 1:2 and centrifuged Ponatinib research buy at 200×g for 3 min and suspended in 400 μL medium. After an incubation at 37°C for 45 min, the cells were fixed by adding 1.5 mL 1.5% PFA. The cells were

washed (PBS, 0.5% BSA) and stained for surface molecules with anti CD3-PeTxR and CD18 coupled to FITC (or PE if EGFP-expressing cells were used). Thereafter, cells were washed (PBS, 0.5% BSA, 0.07%NaN3) and permeabilized (PBS, 0.5% BSA, 0.07% NaN3, 0.05% Saponin) and stained for F-actin (Phalloidin-AF647) and nuclei (Hoechst33342). After extensive washing, the cells were suspended in 60 μL PBS for the ImageStream analysis. For MIFC analysis, cells were acquired using an ImageStream™ analyzer (IS100)

and selleck chemical INSPIRE software (Amnis, Seattle, WA, USA). The ImageStream combines flow cytometry and microscopy using a 40× objective (0.75 NA). To analyze receptor accumulation in the T-cell/APC interface, MIFC was used as described recently 5. Briefly, cells were stained as described above and then acquired using an ImageStream™ analyzer (IS100) and INSPIRE software (Amnis). The cell classifier was adjusted in a way that APC singlets were not acquired. Image data were analyzed in a batch operation using IDEAS 3.0 software (Amnis). Fluorescence intensities were quantified in spatially defined regions of interest (masks) that specified the T cell or the T-cell/APC interface. Thus, a valley mask that was created between the Hoechst33342 stain of the T cells and the APCs

was defined as an intercell region. This valley mask was combined with a CD3-dependent T-cell mask resulting in the immune synapse mask. Thereafter, protein accumulation was calculated as the ratio between the pixel intensity of the respective protein in the immune synapse mask and the intensity Exoribonuclease of the same protein in the T-cell mask. If the ratio is bigger than 1, the respective protein is enriched in the immune synapse. We set a ratio threshold for protein enrichment at 1.2, to assure a significant degree of enrichment of the proteins in the immune synapse. To quantify the F-actin content in T cells, the phalloidin staining (MPI) within the T-cell mask was assessed 5. For lysate preparation, PB T cells were washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and lysed on ice for 30 min using TKM lysis buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 1%NP40, 25 mM KCl, 5 mM MgCl2, 1 mM NaVO4, 5 mM NaF, 20 μg/mL Leupeptin/Aprotinin each).

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