Another limitation is that Crenolanib concentration QSI-derived P0 (probability for zero displacement) map was not used for the analysis in this study. We recognized that the P0 map was useful for MS lesion detection ,  and . However, we thought that it was difficult to use P0 values for quantitative analysis because the values of P0 were usually scaled as arbitrary unit. The third limitation of our study was the small number of patients evaluated and the lack of clinical correlations with diffusional metrics. FA and ADC values of the white matter can be influenced
by duration and severity of MS. Therefore, before the usefulness of RMSD as an imaging biomarker can be established, longitudinal studies and correlations between RMSD and clinical disease characteristics must be established. In conclusion, RMSD values derived from QSI data GDC-0941 mw may reflect microstructural changes and damage in the
white matter of patients with MS with higher sensitivity than do ADC and FA values obtained from conventional DTI. More studies of the imaging–pathology relationship are needed, but QSI has the potential to provide new information for characterizing MS pathology in vivo. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest. We thank Shuji Sato for help with data acquisition. This study was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Comprehensive Brain Science Network) from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, and Culture of Japan. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 24591788. “
“The primary cross-sectional
medical imaging technologies currently employed in clinical oncology include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and ultrasound (US). In recent years, there have been dramatic increases in the range and quality of information available from these noninvasive methods so that many potentially valuable imaging metrics are now available to assist in diagnosis, determine Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) extent of disease, measure tumor size and predict treatment response [see, e.g., 1]. Depending on the modality, quantitative information can be obtained that reports on anatomical (MRI, CT, US), physiological (MRI, CT, PET, US), cellular (MRI, PET) and even molecular (MRI, PET, SPECT, US) events. (Accessible reviews on how each modality contributes to basic and clinical cancer research can be found in, e.g., Refs.  and .) Each modality offers advantages and trade-offs in, for example, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, sensitivity, signal-to-noise, contrast-to-noise and ability for quantification. As different modalities have different strengths and weaknesses, there is no one “ideal” technique.