Children were instructed
to press a button on the keyboard on the side corresponding to the animal which was bigger in real life ( Szűcs et al., 2009; Bryce et al., 2011). In the congruent condition the animal GSK-3 inhibition which was larger in real life was presented in a larger picture than the animal which was smaller in real life. In the incongruent condition the animal which was larger in real life was presented in a smaller picture than the animal which was smaller in real life. 96 trials were presented. Numerical magnitude comparison Stroop task: Stimuli were pairs of white Arabic digits shown simultaneously on black background. There were four possible number pairs, with two different numerical distances. Children were instructed to decide which item of the pair was numerically larger than the other one and pressed a key where they detected the numerically larger stimulus. Numerical and physical size information could be neutral, congruent or incongruent selleck products with each other in equal proportions (congruency factor). In the congruent condition the numerically larger digit was also physically larger than the other one. In the incongruent condition the numerically larger digit was physically smaller than the other one. In the neutral condition both digits were of the same physical size. Numerical distance between stimuli was either 1 or 7 (numerical distance
factor). 192 trials were presented. Physical size comparison Stroop task: This task was identical to the numerical magnitude Stroop task, with the exception that the task was to respond to the physically larger stimulus. In neutral trials the digits differed in physical size but were numerically identical. 192 trials were presented. Subitizing: Niclosamide Arrays containing one to six black dots appeared on a white background and children were instructed to say the number of dots as quickly as possible. Dot stimuli were presented in canonical and, where possible, non-canonical arrangements. RTs were measured using a voice-key.
60 trials were presented. Symbolic magnitude comparison: Children decided whether visually presented digits were smaller or larger than 5. Children pressed a button on the keyboard with their left hand if the number was smaller than 5 and another button with their right hand if the number was larger than 5. 80 trials were presented. Non-symbolic magnitude comparison: Two sets of black dots were presented simultaneously on a white background. The children’s task was to decide which set contained more dots and press the button on the side of the larger set. Dot size was varied between sets. The following factors were manipulated in the construction of the stimuli sets: (1) The ratio of the number of dots in the two sets (1:2, 3:5, 2:3); (2) The numerical distance between the number of dots in the two sets; (3) The type of the physical control variable; (4) The congruity of physical control variables and numerosity; (5) The overall numerical sum of items in a display.