Compared with WW treatments, for example, Pn decreased under the

Compared with WW treatments, for example, Pn decreased under the MD and SD treatments by respectively 25.8% and 56.4% for WT plants, but by only 13.1% and 35.7% for PPDK and by 13.8% and 34.9% for PCK. Similar to leaf photosynthesis,

chlorophyll and nitrogen RGFP966 manufacturer contents in leaves and activities of Rubisco, PEPC and CA decreased under the soil-drying treatments, with greater reduction in WT plants than in transgenic plants (Table 3). Under the same soil moisture levels, activities of PEPC and CA in transgenic plants were 3–5-fold higher than those in WT plants. Compared with the activity of Rubisco, activities of PEPC and CA were less reduced under both MD and SD, especially under MD (Table 3), suggesting that the enzymes involved in C4 photosynthesis are more resistant to drought than that involved in C3 photosynthesis. The effect of drought Palbociclib mouse on the antioxidative system in the form of MDA content

and SOD activity was investigated (Fig. 2). MDA content increased with increasing drought level and leaf age (Fig. 2A–C), suggesting the production of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by drought and leaf aging. Compared with WT rice, transgenic rice showed a significant lower content of MDA under all the soil moisture treatments (P < 0.05), suggesting an improved tolerance of ROS damage especially under drought environments. In contrast to MDA content, SOD activities were higher for transgenic plants, especially for PPDK, than for WT plants under the MD and SD treatments (P < 0.05, Fig. 2D–F). Under the same soil moisture and on the same measurement dates, the volumes of root exudates of transgenic plants were much greater than those of WT plants (Fig. 3). For the same genotype, the volume of root exudates decreased with increased soil drought, with a greater reduction for WT than for transgenic plants. In comparison with the WW treatment, under the MD and SD treatments the volumes of root exudates at 14 DPA decreased by respectively 27.0% and 66.1% for the WT, by 21.5% and 56.9% for PPDK, and by 6.3% and 50.7% for PCK and the volume of root exudates at 28 DPA decreased by respectively

why 42.1% and 71.4% for the WT, by 33.7% and 66.3% for PPDK, and by 20.7% and 63.6% for PCK. The transgenic plants also showed higher root oxidation activity (ROA) than WT plants, especially under the drought treatments (Fig. 4). For example, the ROA under the MD and SD treatments decreased by respectively 16% and 75% for WT plants, by 9.5% and 62.0% for PPDK plants, and by 12% and 65% for PCK plants, compared with that under the WW treatment. Although water stress significantly reduced biomass production for all the genotypes, transgenic genotypes consistently showed higher biomass at maturity than WT under all the soil moisture treatments (Table 4). For example, in the field experiment the transgenic plants had respectively 19.

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