e the Narayani/Gandaki) carrying sedimentary material eroded fro

e. the Narayani/Gandaki) carrying sedimentary material eroded from the upper Himalaya crystalline basement rocks. In contrast to this, Williams et al., 2004 and Williams et al., 2005 suggested that As contamination in the Terai region may be the result of oxidation of authigenic As-bearing sulfides derived from the Siwalik meta-sediments,

rather than reductive-dissolution Torin 1 of As-bearing Fe-oxides. Furthermore, an analysis performed by Kansakar (2004) on 18,000 tubewells of the Terai region suggested greater As release from the Siwalik-derived sediment than sediments from the large first and second grade rivers such as the Narayani/Gandaki. Khadka et al. (2004) found concentrations of As increased downstream in waters of the Jharia, a minor river which originates from the Siwalik forehills near Nawalparasi. These studies suggest that the main source of geogenic As in the Terai check details alluvial aquifers may be sediments derived from erosion of the Siwalik forehills. The sedimentary origins of As and the precise mechanism(s) responsible for As mobilization in alluvial aquifer sediments of the Nawalparasi district are yet to be unequivocally determined. Given the gaps in present understanding, it is important to further investigate the geochemical characteristics

of groundwater in alluvial aquifers of this region. This study aims to explore the geochemical characteristics of groundwater and river water along the topo-gradient flow path of a minor river draining from the Siwalik forehills. The objective of the study is to examine the geochemical evidence for various arsenic release mechanisms within the alluvial aquifer in the Nawalparasi district, Nepal. The Nawalparasi district is located in the Terai alluvial plain, the Tyrosine-protein kinase BLK Western Development Region, Nepal. It has a population of about 650,000 (CBS, 2012) and covers an area of 2162 km2 (Bhattacharya et al., 2003). It is surrounded by Rupandehi, Chitwan and Palpa districts in east, west and north respectively, while India lies to

the south. The elevation of the district ranges from 93 to 1491 m above mean sea level (msl). It is situated in a subtropical zone and is subjected to monsoonal rainfall with an average annual precipitation of about 1400 mm (Shrestha, 2007). The district has three distinct hydrogeological zones: (1) the Siwalik Hills, (2) the Bhabar recharge zone and (3) the Terai plain unconsolidated Holocene floodplain sediments. The northern part of the district is bounded by the steeply sloped Siwalik Hills which are composed of sedimentary rocks such as sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, shale, and conglomerates. Immediately south lies the Bhabar zone, which is composed of unconsolidated sediments that are porous and coarse such as gravel, cobbles and boulder material, thereby making the Bhabar zone highly permeable, with an average transmissivity ∼5000 m2 per day and a hydraulic conductivity of ∼200 m per day (Kansakar, 2004 and Shrestha, 2007).

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