Each pool consisted of three larval guts and their total average

Each pool consisted of three larval guts and their total average weight was 3.68 g MCC950 chemical structure (SD: 0.18). RPW guts were aseptically extracted from each larva, then the content of three guts was pooled, serially diluted in sterile physiological solution, and plated on NA. The plates were incubated for 72 h at 28°C. At the end of the incubation period, colonies were counted and single colonies were streaked to purity on the same fresh medium. The isolates were grouped into OTUs by ARDRA analysis.

The whole 16S gene was amplified by colony PCR using the bacterial universal primers fD1 and rD1 [53], as described elsewhere [2], and the amplicons were digested using the restriction enzymes AluI and AfaI. Representative isolates of each OTU were randomly chosen for bidirectional sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Colonies growing on sterilization control plates were streaked to purity and analysed by ARDRA and 16SrRNA gene partial sequencing. In the same time enrichment cultures in a sorbitol-containing medium at pH 3.5 were set as described by Yamada et al. [42], for the isolation of acetic acid bacteria (AAB). When microbial growth occurred, the microorganisms were streaked on CaCO3 agar

plates and colonies capable of causing clearing S3I-201 mw of the CaCO3 were selected and identified by partial sequencing of PCR-amplified 16SrRNA gene. Sequences were subjected to NCBI nucleotide BLAST search as described above. Amplified sequences and close relatives were aligned using SILVA alignment tool [54]. Alignment was merged with SSUref_108_Silva_NR database and manually checked with ARB [50]. After alignment, the neighbour-joining algorithm of ARB package was used to generate the phylogenetic trees based on distance analysis for 16S rRNA genes. The robustness of inferred topologies aminophylline was tested by bootstrap re-sampling using the same distance model (1000 replicates). 16S rRNA gene sequences were deposited

in Genbank under accessions number KC584753 to KC584772 (gut isolates), KC763479-80 (cuticle isolates) and KC763478 (AAB enrichment culture isolate). Addendum Recently, just before this manuscript was submitted to this journal, a study on the seasonal variation of the intestinal TSA HDAC metagenomes of R. ferrugineus larvae and adults from date palms was published [55]. This study reports that, at the phylum level, Proteobacteria dominate the gut metagenomes of date palm larvae, followed by Tenericutes or Firmicutes depending on the season. The authors identify Klebsiella pneumoniae and Lactococcus lactis as the dominant species of the microbiota. Bacteroidetes are found at negligible levels and the genus Dysgonomonas is not detected. Differences between larvae from date palm and those from Canary palm may be attributed to the host plant species. The metagenomic analysis carried out by Jia et al.

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