Even if most

Even if most ABT-888 supplier active chemicals can be identified, a substantial level of research is required before enough is known about their risk and bioavailability, so

that this information can be included in standard assessment lists. There is growing concern that effects may result from countless compounds yet to be identified in sediment samples, and that some of these compounds may cause biological impacts that are not easily detected with the standard bioassay methods developed to correlate with the toxic effects of priority pollutants. All these issues pose concerns about a tiered assessment approach that allows for a pass or fail of sediments based upon a chemical screen, and future work investigating these issues may be warranted. It has been suggested that one of the reasons that this vast array of unexamined potential contaminants has not caused a complete failure of standards-based sediment assessment is that many contaminants that associate with sediments associate with the same sediment fractions (fine-grained, organic-rich sediments), and thus, if contaminants are sorbed onto PI3K activity particles from the same water, contaminants

may co-occur

in the same sediments ( Apitz et al., 2004, Apitz et al., 2005b and Wenning et al., 2005). In that case, contaminants in action lists may be considered as “sentinel” compounds that signal the presence of other contaminants overall. In spite of the plethora of unexamined contaminants, empirically-derived SQGs are frequently successful in predicting acute toxicity and non-toxicity in sediments even when only a few contaminants are considered. Florfenicol This may be because they are based upon the critical levels of a given contaminant in sediments at which toxicity is observed as a function of that contaminant and all other contaminants that co-occur in the sediment ( Wenning et al., 2005). Thus, if the causes of toxicity are not all among the measured contaminants, but there is a general covariance of these contaminants in sediments used for the database, the evaluation of a few “sentinel” contaminants may be effective in flagging those sediments of potential concern, whatever the contaminants causing the actual impact. The success of empirically-derived SQGs in a broad variety of areas bears this assumption out in many cases.

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