Furthermore, the enzymes involved are largely unknown In this st

Furthermore, the enzymes involved are largely unknown. In this study, we initially demonstrate that Syk is strictly required for efficient internalization of engaged FcεRI complexes as well as for Epigenetics Compound Library clinical trial their subsequent transport to lysosomes for degradation. We show that Hrs is subjected to antigen-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation and monoubiquitination, and we identify Syk as the main kinase regulating both Hrs covalent modifications. Finally, we provide evidence that Syk-induced modifications of Hrs impact on its endosomal localization, regulating Hrs function. Limited data exist on the role of Syk as regulator of

FcεRI endosomal trafficking, mainly resulting from the use of Syk-deficient RBL-2H3 cells [10, 11]. To address the contribution of Syk in endocytosis of engaged FcεRI complexes, we used siRNA-based approaches combined with FACS analysis and fluorescence microscopy. Upon RBL-2H3 transfection with Syk-siRNA, we reproducibly obtained a protein level reduction of approximately 75% when compared with control cells (Ctrl-siRNA) (Fig. 1A). Control and Syk interfered cells were sensitized with anti-DNP IgE mAb and stimulated (or not) with the multivalent antigen DNP-HSA

for the indicated lengths of time. The knockdown FK506 price of Syk did not alter the FcεRI surface expression and distribution on unstimulated cells (Fig. 1B and C), but inhibited total tyrosine phosphorylation and β-hexosaminidase release, as expected (Supporting

Information Fig. 1). Previous analysis has revealed that in WT RBL-2H3 cells, receptor downmodulation occurs as early as 1 min after FcεRI engagement reaching a maximum after 15–30 min of stimulation (>70% oxyclozanide of downregulation) [11, 29]. Notably, almost 50% reduction of receptor downmodulation was observed upon 30 min of stimulation in Syk interfered cells with respect to control cells by flow cytometry (Fig. 1B), supporting a role for Syk in regulating FcεRI surface expression. Microscopic analysis revealed a time-dependent redistribution of the majority of engaged receptors in perinuclear regions in control cells, whereas in Syk knocked-down cells aggregated receptors are still localized in clustered zone close to the plasma membrane (Fig. 1C). Those differences are still evident after 1 h of stimulation. Similar results were obtained when RBL cells were stimulated with a lower dose of multivalent antigen (data not shown). Next, we compared the fate of internalized FcεRI complexes in cells transfected with control- or Syk-siRNA (Fig. 1D; quantification in Fig. 1E). After 90 min and 2 h of stimulation, colocalization of receptor and Lyso-Tracker Red-positive acidic compartments was detected in control cells, but was partially prevented upon siRNA knockdown of Syk (∼50% of colocalization on control cells versus 20–25% on Syk-siRNA cells).

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