Glycogen storage was 2–3 times faster in the immediate condition during four hours post-exercise resulting in greater glycogen storage at four hours. These findings initiated the faster-is-better post-exercise guideline for carbohydrate. However, complete glycogen resynthesis to pre-trained levels can occur well within 24 hours given sufficient total carbohydrate intake. Jentjens and Jeukendrup  suggest that a between-bout period of eight hours or less is grounds for maximally expediting glycogen resynthesis.
Therefore, the urgency of glycogen resynthesis is almost an exclusive concern of endurance athletes with multiple glycogen-depleting events separated by only a few hours. Bodybuilders in contest preparation may exceed a single training bout per day (e.g., weight-training in the morning, cardio in the evening). However, bodybuilders do not have the Cilengitide concentration same performance objectives as multi-stage endurance competition, where the same muscle groups are trained to exhaustion in a repeated manner within the same day. Furthermore, Pevonedistat mw resistance training bouts are typically not glycogen-depleting. High-intensity Selleck Olaparib (70-80% of 1 RM), moderate-volume (6–9 sets per muscle group) bouts have been seen to reduce glycogen stores by roughly 36-39% [72, 73]. A more relevant question
to bodybuilding may be whether protein and/or amino
acid timing affect LBM maintenance. With little exception , acute studies have consistently shown that ingesting protein/essential amino acids Selleckchem MG 132 and carbohydrate near or during the training bout can increase muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and suppress muscle protein breakdown [75–79]. However, there is a disparity between short- and long-term outcomes in studies examining the effect of nutrient timing on resistance training adaptations. To-date, only a minority of chronic studies have shown that specific timing of nutrients relative to the resistance training bout can affect gains in muscular size and/or strength. Cribb and Hayes  found that timing a supplement consisting of 40 g protein, 43 g carbohydrate, and 7 g creatine immediately pre- and post-exercise resulted in greater size and strength gains than positioning the supplement doses away from the training bout. Additionally, Esmarck et al.  observed greater hypertrophy in subjects who ingested a supplement (10 g protein, 8 g carbohydrate, 3 g fat) immediately post-exercise than subjects who delayed the supplement 2 hours post-exercise. In contrast, the majority of chronic studies have not supported the effectiveness of timing nutrients (protein in particular) closely around the training bout. Burk et al.