However, some individuals
rated the DD excerpts quite low in terms of valence, which rather indicates that, in at least some individuals, the role of the cochlea cannot be critical for the perception of sensory dissonance. This supports the idea that the psychoacoustic model advocated by Plomp & Levelt (1965) fails to explain the perception of consonance and dissonance when tones are presented dichotically (Houtsma & Goldstein, 1972). Instead, the data of these participants corroborate the idea that dissonance percepts must be computed centrally by deriving information from the combined neural signals selleck compound relayed from both cochleas. This is supported by a study showing that notes presented dichotically create brainstem frequency-following responses (presumably originating from the IC) that preserve the complex spectra of both notes in a single response (Bidelman & Krishnan, 2009). Note that, in dichotic listening tasks, the attentional focus on one ear can, in some circumstances, be modulated by training (Soveri et al., 2013). It is unknown if some form of attentional modulation of a sensory percept is possible during dichotic dissonance RGFP966 solubility dmso stimulation, such that individual differences between
the subjects’ ratings might also be explained by the degree to which they were listening only to one ear (each of the acoustic signals at both ears during the dichotic condition were consonant). The behavioral results thus show that D stimuli are perceived as more unpleasant than dichotically presented dissonance, showing that interactions within the cochlea may contribute Acetophenone to the valence percept during dissonance. However, our results indicate that the creation of dissonance cannot solely depend on the cochlea, but also relies on a central
process that bihemispherically integrates neural activity from the auditory pathways, and which seems to vary considerably between individuals. Results from the VBM analysis, where the association between GMD and an increasing (un)pleasantness experience when listening to dichotically presented musical excerpts was investigated, show differences in GMD between the participants who perceive the dichotic dissonance as nearly as pleasant as a consonant signal (which would rather suggest a minor role of central integration) and those who perceive the dichotic dissonance as unpleasant as a D signal (which would rather suggest a major role of central integration). More specifically, our results show a positive correlation between the dichotic–diotic dissonance difference contrast values [indicating how (un)pleasant the dichotic dissonance was perceived in relation to O and D] and the GMD in a region centred roughly in the colliculus, including the IC, where we had hypothesised a GMD difference in relation to individual differences of dichotic dissonance appreciation.