In Nepal, disappearance from some of the rivers it once used has

In Nepal, disappearance from some of the rivers it once used has already occurred. Today this species can only be found in three river systems in Nepal, the Karnali, Sapta Koshi, and Narayani, but numbers are low in these locations. To determine the abundance of dolphins remaining in the

Karnali system (which includes the Karnali, Geruwa, and Mohana), and factors affecting dolphin habitat use, we conducted surveys where we recorded dolphin presence. Dolphins within this river system were sighted only in the Karnali and an abundance estimate of 5.04 ± 0.753 SE was calculated. This pattern of ranging differed from that previously reported (from previous sightings only in the Geruwa to current sightings only in the Karnali). River depth likely contributed to the presence or absence of dolphins. Shifts in available habitat between MAPK Inhibitor Library the Geruwa and Karnali have resulted from changes in the course of the main stream Karnali following construction of the Chisapani irrigation intake. Because of the low numbers of dolphins reported, there is great concern that loss of this species in Nepal is likely in the near future. “
“We compared the behaviors of primiparous and multiparous

gray seal (Halichoerus grypus) females RO4929097 over the course of lactation to examine whether poorly developed maternal behaviors may play a role in the reduced lactation performance observed in primiparous females. Overall, primiparous females MCE spent as much time interacting with their pups as multiparous females. The proportion of time spent nursing their pup increased significantly between early and peak lactation in both primiparous and multiparous females. Although there was no significant difference in the duration of nursing bouts as a function of reproductive status, primiparous females nursed significantly more frequently (bouts/hour) and, therefore,

spent a significantly greater proportion of time nursing than multiparous females throughout lactation. Primiparous gray seal females were also significantly more active than multiparous females, however, the difference in activity represented only a small proportion of the overall time budget. We conclude that poorly developed maternal behaviors resulting from a lack of prior reproductive experience are unlikely to account for lower levels of milk energy transfer to pups in primiparous gray seals. “
“In the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens), a polygynous species with a high degree of sexual dimorphism, pups form groups during maternal foraging trips. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of sexual differences in aggregation behavior and association patterns in O. flavescens pups at Isla de Lobos, Uruguay, during the first 2 mo of life. Scan samplings of marked pups were conducted every hour from 0700 to 1800 to register behavior. Association patterns were analyzed in SOCPROG (using the Half-Weight Index of Association).

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