In the protected forest, dietary breadths were low for jaguars an

In the protected forest, dietary breadths were low for jaguars and pumas and showed little overlap. In this habitat each relied heavily on a single medium-sized (5–10 kg) prey species: armadillos Dasypus novemcinctus for jaguars, and pacas Agouti paca for pumas. Both cats also took larger prey (>10 kg), mainly

white-lipped peccaries Tayassu pecari by jaguars and red brocket deer Mazama americana by pumas. In unprotected fragmented lands, jaguar scats rarely contained large wild prey species; rather, a diet of relatively small wild prey was supplemented with larger domestic species. check details Pumas did not take domestic species and were scarce outside the protected forest, possibly indicating competition with humans for pacas and deer, which are also prized game species in the region. This study is the largest analysis to date of sympatric jaguar and puma diets in both forest and farmland. We suggest that jaguar predation on cattle may be reduced by ensuring that game hunting is sustainable and potentially by augmenting forests within the human matrix with large wild ungulates. The supplementation could benefit both of the cat species, and the local game hunting economy. “
“The time it takes seeds to pass

through the gut of vertebrates is an important aspect of endozoochorous seed dispersal because it influences seed dispersal distance. The physical characteristics of Fludarabine price seeds (e.g. dry seed weight, volume and specific gravity) C646 concentration vary among plant species, which might cause a difference in seed movement through the gastrointestinal system. We conducted feeding experiments with captive female Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata (n=5) using eight different types of seeds to evaluate the effects of the physical characteristics of seeds on their passage time. The median seed recovery percentage for the real seeds was 35.5% (range, 24–78%). Among three passage time variables examined, the mean retention time (MRT) (37–54 h) and time of last appearance of a seed (TLA) (53–109 h) differed significantly among seed types, and the former differed significantly

among individuals. Transit time (TT) (22–35 h) did not. The generalized linear models (GLM) selected dry seed weight as the most important factor affecting MRT, and specific gravity of seeds as the most important factor affecting TLA. This implies that (1) heavier seeds and (or) seeds with greater specific gravity remain in the gut longer and are likely to be dispersed farther from the parent plant; (2) the lighter seeds and (or) seeds with lower specific gravity are dispersed nearer the parent. Our study demonstrated the importance of considering the effects of the physical characteristics of seeds on the manner in which primates disperse plant species, although we should consider the effect of the individual variation in the passage time, too.

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