It is clear that the maturation state of the DC is a crucial determining factor in the induction of Treg in the periphery.
On one hand, by providing only partial or negative (e.g. CTLA-4) co-stimulatory signals or secreting immunosuppressive cytokines (e.g. IL-10, TGF-β), immature DC can be good inducers of T-cell tolerance and certain types of Treg. Jonuleit et al. demonstrated IL-10-dependent generation of Tr-1 cells in vitro using immature DC 36. On the other hand, BTK inhibitor solubility dmso peripheral expansion of CD4+ Treg may be dependent on optimal co-stimulatory signals from the mature DC. Yamazaki et al. reported in vivo expansion of CD4+CD25+ Treg require DC-T-cell contact and B7 co-stimulation from the DC 37. Here we show that the DC’s in vivo and in vitro stimulatory ability is associated with both the maturation state and subset of DC. In line with the results presented here, CD8α+DC
have previously been reported to be superior to CD8α− DC in the induction of Foxp3+CD4+ Treg 28. Data from our laboratory and others have shown that the CD8α+ DC population produces type-1 cytokines and preferentially primes Th-1 responses to peptide 27 (unpublished data). Consistent with earlier studies, TCR-reactive CD4+FOXP3− Treg are most efficiently primed by the Th-1-priming CD8α+ DC population. These studies suggest a Th-1 like milieu is essential for successful priming of the TCR-based negative feedback mechanism and protection from EAE Temsirolimus solubility dmso 29, 30. Thus our working model of regulation predicts Erastin mouse that CD4+ and CD8αα+TCRαβ Treg are primed within the Th-1 inflammatory milieu associated with active EAE. Furthermore, DC that have captured Vβ8.2+ T cells
can activate TCR peptide-reactive CD4+ Treg and stimulation is augmented when the DC have been treated with the TLR4-agonist LPS (Fig. 2). Additionally, stimulation of the CD4+ Treg is enhanced using DC isolated from mice with active EAE compared with DC from naïve mice (Fig. 1). Inflammatory mediators induce the DC maturation process, this results in the remodeling of endosomal compartments, relocation of MHC class II molecules from the late endosomal compartments to the cell surface and upregulation of costimulatory molecules. Together these events augment the DC’s stimulatory capacity. Our data suggest that during inflammatory conditions such as active EAE there is optimal priming of the CD4+ and CD8αα+TCRαβ Treg. Importantly, engulfment of apoptotic T cells does not activate the DC with respect to up-regulation of co-stimulatory and MHC molecules 24. Thus we predict under steady-state conditions DC that capture the small number of Vβ8.2+ T cells undergoing apoptotic cell death may not stimulate an efficient Treg response. This may be an important mechanism by which the negative feedback regulation, based upon TCR as the target molecule, ensures productive immunity against pathogens.