Knowledge of changes in the immune system of F indicus in respon

Knowledge of changes in the immune system of F. indicus in response to poor water quality and stress could contribute to improving management strategies. Studies of the impact of salinity on immune and biochemical variables in cultured shrimp have shown that it could play an important role in dealing with viral diseases. In addition to salinity, other environmental variables such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and ammonia have been reported to affect the immune function of crustaceans [25]. Joseph and Phillip reported on the influence of salinity on Pembrolizumab purchase the immune systems of both healthy and WSSV-challenged P. monodon [12]. There is no degree

of salinity that can ensure prevention of a WSSV outbreak in experimental shrimp [26]. The present study emphasizes the role of salinity in changes in biochemical and immune indices of another important culture candidate, F. indicus. We found that WSSV this website infection and salinity

stress significantly affect the immune function of this shrimp. Salinity is an important environmental factor because its variation can influence shrimp physiology, affecting metabolic efficiency, oxygen consumption, growth rate and survival [27]. Sanchez et al. reported that WSSV proliferation and mortality of Litopenaeus vannamei are higher in 15 g/L salinity [28]. Similarly, we found that low salinity (5 g/L) had a drastic impact on the survival of WSSV-challenged F. indicus. We observed increased activity of PO and other enzymes at higher salinities; this correlated directly with the survival of the animals. These findings indicate that,

during WSSV infection, salinity influences immune and biochemical variables in F. indicus. However, the mechanism of resistance Cytidine deaminase to WSSV is not known. In the present study, the mortality of F. indicus infected with WSSV and held in 5 and 35 g/L was significantly higher than that of shrimp held in 25 g/L. This suggests that the susceptibility of shrimp to WSSV infection is significantly lower in both high and low degrees of salinity. Hemocytes are responsible for clotting, exoskeleton hardening and elimination of foreign materials [23]. Mean THCs of healthy penaeid shrimp ranged from 20 to 40 × 106 cells/mL. Molting, development of organs, reproductive status, nutritional condition and disease have been shown to influence hemocyte abundance [29]. In the present study, in shrimp subjected to salinity stress hemolymph total protein concentrations were significantly increased 48 and 72 hrs after injection of WSSV, but had decreased at 96 and 120 hrs post-injection. This suggests that hemolymph protein may contribute to adjusting to a hyper-saline environment (35 g/L). Lo et al. reported high concentrations of protein and amino acids in the hemolymph of crustaceans with severe WSSV infections [4].

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