Later, Pai et al. (2006), reported crystal structures of E. coli Gss in complex with substrate, product, and inhibitor. In 1985, Fairlamb et al. (1985) reported that glutathionylspermidine and diglutathionylspermidine (trypanothione) are present in trypanosomes and that diglutathionylspermidine disulfide, rather C646 than glutathione disulfide, is the substrate for a glutathionyl-like reductase in trypanosomes. These findings probably account for
the therapeutic efficacy of difluoromethylornithine, an inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, in African trypanosomiasis (Fairlamb, 1988; Wyllie et al., 2009). Trypanothione is not present in E. coli. In contrast to the large amount of glutathionylspermidine found in stationary and near-stationary E. coli cultures, the earlier studies indicated that logarithmically growing cultures of E. coli contain very little (Smith et al., 1995) or no detectable
(Tabor & Tabor, 1976) glutathionylspermidine. As the formation of glutathionylspermidine affects the intracellular levels of both spermidine and glutathione, we felt that it is important to test whether the Gss is only present in certain bacteria and Kinetoplastids. Therefore, we have carried out blast searches of the NCBI databases and have found that the distribution of the Gss is indeed very limited. The small amount of glutathionylspermidine present in logarithmically growing cultures poses the question of whether glutathionylspermidine synthetase has any physiological function in logarithmically growing Tacrolimus E. coli. Therefore, we have carried out microarray studies of E. coli, comparing a strain Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor with a deletion in the gene coding for glutathionylspermidine synthetase (Δgss) with a gss+ strain and have found that a large number of genes are up-regulated or down-regulated in the Δgss strain compared to the gss+ strain. Strains used in this study are listed in Table 1.
Cultures were grown in M9 medium (Miller, 1992) containing 0.4% glucose; incubation was at 37 °C with shaking. For a comparison of the different phyla, blast searches were carried out comparing the E. coli Gss amino acid sequences (accession number AAC76024.1) with the nonredundant protein databases of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The cutoff level for significant homology, as defined by Hall (Hall, 2011), is e < 10−3 and query coverage > 55%. The cultures were incubated with shaking in air until the OD600 nm was 0.7–0.8 (log-phase culture) or 2.8–3.0 (stationary-phase culture). The cells were collected by centrifugation, extracted with perchloric acid, and 5 μL of the 10% perchloric acid extract, representing 1 mg of cells (wet weight), was then analyzed by ion exchange chromatography essentially as described earlier (Murakami et al., 1989; Chattopadhyay et al., 2009b) using a Shim-pack column (Shimadzu, ISC-05/S0504); the eluting buffer was 1.6 M NaCl, 0.2 M sodium citrate.