Neurons responding to multiple limbs may reflect it transitory phase in the progression from their involvement in one sensorimotor function to a new function that replaces processing lost due to stroke.”
“In this paper, a
recently developed model governing the cancer growth on a cell population level with combination of immune and chemotherapy is used to develop a reactive (feedback) mixed treatment strategy. The feedback design proposed here is based on nonlinear constrained model predictive control together with an adaptation scheme that enables the effects of unavoidable modeling uncertainties to be compensated. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is shown under realistic human data showing the advantage PLX4032 of treatment in feedback form as well as the relevance of the adaptation Tozasertib manufacturer strategy in handling uncertainties and modeling errors. A new treatment strategy defined by an original optimal control problem formulation is also proposed. This new formulation shows particularly interesting possibilities since it may lead to tumor regression under better health indicator profile. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder are common, chronic, and recurrent mood disorders that affect the lives of millions of individuals worldwide. Growing evidence suggests that glutamatergic system
dysfunction is directly involved in mood disorders. This article describes the role of the “”tripartite glutamatergic synapse,”" comprising
presynaptic and post-synaptic neurons and glial cells, in the pathophysiology and therapeutics of mood disorders. Glutamatergic neurons and glia directly control synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamate levels/release through integrative effects that target glutamate excitatory amino acid transporters, postsynaptic density proteins, ionotropic receptors (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid [AMPA], N-methyl-D-aspartate [NAIDA], and kainate) and Dichloromethane dehalogenase metabotropic receptors. This article also explores the glutamatergic modulators riluzole and ketamine, which are considered valuable proof-of-concept agents for developing the next generation of antidepressants and mood stabilizers. In therapeutically relevant paradigms ketamine preferentially targets postsynaptic AMPA/NMDA receptors, and riluzole preferentially targets presynaptic voltage-operated channels and glia.”
“Mitochondria play a central role in cellular energetic metabolism. The essential parts of this metabolism are the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the respiratory chain and the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis machinery. Here a simplified model of these three metabolic components with a limited set of differential equations is presented. The existence of a steady state is demonstrated and results of numerical simulations are presented. The relevance of a simple model to represent actual in vivo behavior is discussed. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.