Of 20 clones, ITS sequences of seven clones of CCMSSC 00489 were

Of 20 clones, ITS sequences of seven clones of CCMSSC 00489 were the same as chromatogram b (Fig. 1b), whereas the others were the same as chromatogram c (Fig. 1c). For strain CCMSSC 00491, six clones were the same as chromatogram b (Fig. 1b), whereas the others

ERK assay were the same as chromatogram c (Fig. 1c). In conclusion, the two nuclei had detectable differences in their ITS sequences, explaining why direct sequencing of ITS in P. nebrodensis failed. Although the protoplast-derived monokaryon method was more tedious and time-consuming, it is still a preferable choice for sequencing the ITS of those strains that are not amenable to direct sequencing. Monokaryons also could be obtained by single-spore isolation because it is simpler than by the protoplast check details method. But single-spore isolation is more time-consuming. Using controls for PCR, cloning and sequencing errors (Cummings et al., 2009), sequencing after cloning may be a top-priority method when direct

sequencing fails. We thank Dr Daniel J. Royse for editing the manuscript. This work was supported by the Research & Development Special Fund for Public Welfare Industry (3-27). “
“The recent online report in Science (Wolfe-Simon et al., 2010; http://www.sciencexpress.org) that a newly isolated bacterial strain can apparently replace phosphate with arsenate in cellular constituents such as DNA and RNA either (1) wonderfully expands our imaginations as to how living cells might function (as the authors heptaminol and the sponsoring government

agency, the USA NASA, claim) or (2) is just the newest example of how scientist-authors can walk off the plank in their imaginations when interpreting their results, how peer reviewers (if there were any) simply missed their responsibilities and how a press release from the publisher of Science can result in irresponsible publicity in the New York Times and on television. We suggest the latter alternative is the case, and that this report should have been stopped at each of several stages. This is the newest example following when Nature was absurd in publishing favorable reports on the magical spoon-bending telepathist Uri Geller (Nature, 251, 1974, pp. 602–607) and later immunologist J. Benveniste ‘water with memory’ (Nature 333, 1988, pp. 816–818, DOI: 10.1038/333816a0), and Science in 1989 published ‘cold fusion’ reports when competent readers thought the ideas just could not be correct. The authors report three results with their new bacterial isolate, all of which seem reasonable to anyone with experience with arsenic microbiology.

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