On receiving a trigger signal a final pH was reported. A software option was available to gate whether the injection proceeded if the pH was within a predefined range, e.g. pH 7 ± 1. The reported pH was estimated to be accurate to ±0.1. Other devices requiring external device control could be connected to the available PD-0332991 cost external digital output pins of the Arduino board. User-programed software functions controlled the activity of the pump, permitting multistep flow rates, volumes (absolute or calculated volume as a function of animal weight for a given dose) and flow direction. Volume calculations were made
by the software using a calibration volume based on a single revolution by the stepper motor. Using a software function, the calibration volume could be determined based on the mass of water delivered after ten revolutions of the stepper motor or by adaptive volume calibration, in which the calibration volume was internally adjusted based on the measured volumes and compared against the requested volume by the software. Additional features included a cleaning routine using flow control to flush the pump and cannula whilst still connected to the animal. The pump was first calibrated
by three measurements of the mass of distilled water delivered through 1100 mm of 0.96 mm O.D., 0.58 mm I.D. tube into a glass vial after ten revolutions of the pump at 80 rpm. The GSK1120212 purchase average water mass divided by ten was then entered into the software as a volume per revolution. All subsequent volumes
were calculated by the software based on this calibration. The accuracy and scalability of the injection system delivered volumes were measured against programed volumes in the range 0.100–10.000 ml for an arbitrarily chosen constant flow rate of 7.0 ml/min. The delivered volume for a given demanded volume was similarly measured at least three times (range 3–5) by mass of distilled water. The delivery of hyperpolarized substrate was tested firstly in vitro and subsequently in vivo. In both types of experiments 13C1 pyruvic acid (PA) (Sigma Aldrich, Gillingham Ltd., UK) was Parvulin mixed with 15 mM OX63 trityl radical (Oxford Instruments, Abingdon, UK) and 1.5 mM DOTAREM (Guerbet, Roissy, France). 45 mg (12.7 mg for in vitro tests) of PA was hyperpolarized using a HyperSense DNP polarizer, operating between 1.2 and 1.4 K, using a microwave frequency 94.150 GHz and 30 mW for approximately 1 h. The hyperpolarized frozen sample was transferred to the receive vessel using 3.4 ml superheated buffer solution containing 40 mM HEPES buffer solution, 0.269 mM disodium EDTA and 50 mM NaCl (all obtained from Sigma Aldrich). The receive vessel contained a predetermined aliquot of 2.0 M sodium hydroxide solution (Sigma Aldrich) required to neutralize the PA and 2.0 ml HEPES/EDTA buffer solution to ensure that the receive vessel outlet pipe was submerged. Final concentration of PA was ∼100 mM.