On the other hand, the HBsAg negative conversion rate was 28%–4

On the other hand, the HBsAg negative conversion rate was 2.8%–4.0% 24 weeks after conclusion of treatment,[107]

and 8.7%–12% 3 years after.[23, 24] In responders who achieved HBV DNA negative conversion, the HBsAg negative conversion rate is 44% at 3 years,[23] and in patients with HBsAg levels <10 IU/mL at conclusion of treatment, the rate is extremely high at 52%,[122] characteristics not seen with entecavir therapy. In this way, Peg-IFN monotherapy of HBeAg negative patients does not yield high overall rates of HBV DNA continuous negative conversion, but Peg-IFN is the treatment of first Vismodegib order choice because in responders a drug free state and HBsAg negative conversion can be achieved selleck chemical with a finite duration of treatment. However, all these results are from overseas, and there is no Japanese data concerning elimination of HBsAg by Peg-IFN therapy. On the other hand, as for HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis, patients at high risk of progression of hepatic fibrosis to

liver cirrhosis, and in cases where Peg-IFN is ineffective or contraindicated, entecavir is the treatment of first choice. With entecavir treatment, the HBV DNA negative conversion rate is 90% after 48 weeks of treatment,[25] and long term it is extremely high at 100%,[15] enabling certain achievement of HBV DNA negative conversion irrespective of pretreatment factors. However, the relapse rate after treatment cessation is high at 97%, so long term continuous medchemexpress treatment is the norm. The HBsAg negative conversion rate at 48 weeks after treatment commencement is reported as 0%.[25] Even with long term continuous treatment, HBsAg negative conversion is considered rare, but there have been reports of NA therapy with lamivudine yielding a HBsAg negative conversion rate of 6.9% at 9 years,[246] and for adefovir 5% at 3.8 years.[172] There are very few reports of the long term

therapeutic results with entecavir, and further studies will be required to elucidate the HBsAg negative conversion rate with long term treatment. Recommendations In patients with HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis, the overall rate of HBV DNA continuous negative conversion is not high with Peg-IFN therapy, but in responders we can expect high rates of drug free state and HBsAg negative conversion. Peg-IFN should also be considered the treatment of first choice for patients with HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis. In patients at high risk of progression of hepatic fibrosis to liver cirrhosis, and in cases where Peg-IFN is ineffective or contraindicated, entecavir is the treatment of first choice with the aim of maintaining long term remission. Lamivudine therapy is recommended in cases of acute exacerbation of hepatitis associated with jaundice.

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