Importantly,

Importantly, Dinaciclib ic50 our results also indicate that pdVWF/FVIII and rFVIII/VWF may behave differently towards anti-FVIII antibodies. It can be speculated that rFVIII complex formation with VWF would be incomplete and residual free rFVIII would still be able to interact

with inhibitors, preserving some degree of antigenicity. S Grancha is an employee of Instituto Grifols. The other authors received an honorarium from Grifols S.A. for their participation in the symposium and production of the article. The authors thank Content Ed Net for providing valuable editorial assistance in the preparation of the article; funding for this assistance was provided by Grifols S.A. “
“Desmopressin is a synthetic analog of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin that, when given intravenously or intranasally, induces a consistent albeit transient increase of plasma factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (VWF). This property has been exploited since 1977 to treat patients with FVIII and/or VWF deficiency, i.e. mild hemophilia and von Willebrand disease (VWD). The VWD subtype that responds better to desmopressin is type 1, whereas patients with type 2 and 3 VWD are usually unresponsive. The advantages of this compound over other forms of replacement therapy (e.g. VWF-FVIII concentrates from plasma) are the lower cost and the lack of risk

of the transmission of bloodborne pathogens. “
“Summary.  In older men with haemophilia, arthropathy resulting from a lifetime of intra-articular bleeding contributes to the loss of independence and increased morbidity that occurs learn more see more with age. A regular exercise programme that incorporates aerobics, strength training and balance and

flexibility activities is a key component of successful ageing, helping to improve functional mobility and reduce the risk of falls, osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Because of the special challenges associated with haemophilia, which include both the underlying coagulopathy and, in many cases, extensive joint damage, patients beginning an exercise regimen should be referred to appropriately trained physiotherapists (preferably someone associated with a haemophilia treatment centre) for evaluation, education and instruction and follow-up. Various assistive devices may make exercise easier to perform and more comfortable. “
“Patients with congenital haemophilia with inhibitors or acquired haemophilia are at risk of bleeding complications during surgery. In these patients, replacement therapy for the missing coagulation factor is ineffective, and a bypassing agent such as recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) is required to manage bleeding. To evaluate the safety and haemostatic efficacy of rFVIIa treatment in Japanese patients with congenital haemophilia with inhibitors to FVIII/FIX or acquired haemophilia undergoing surgery.

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During the diel cycle, total cell abundance varied on average 28

During the diel cycle, total cell abundance varied on average 2.8 ± 0.6 and 2.6 ± 0.4 times for Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus populations, respectively. Increasing percentages of dead cells of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus were observed during the course of the day reaching the highest

SCH772984 in vivo values around dusk and decreasing as the night progressed, indicating a clear pattern of diel variation in the cell mortality of both cyanobacteria. Diel cycles of cell division were also monitored. The maximum percentage of dead cells (Max % DC) and the G2 + M phase of the cell division occurred within a period of 2 h for Synechoccoccus and 4.5 h for Prochlorococcus, and the lowest fraction of dead cells occurred at early morning, when the maximum number of cells in G1 phase were also observed. The G1 maximum corresponded with the maximal increase in newly divided cells (minimum % dead cells), and the subsequent exposure of healthy daughter cells to environmental stresses during the day resulted in the progressive increase in dying cells, with the loss of these cells from the population when cell division takes place. The discovery of diel patterns in cell death

observed revealed the intense dynamics of picocyanobacterial populations in nature. “
“Gametes were induced separately in cultures BMN 673 cost of each mating type of the heterothallic, isogamous colonial volvocalean Gonium pectorale O. F. Müll. to examine the tubular mating structure (TMS) of both mating types plus and minus (plus and minus), referred to as “bilateral mating papillae.” Addition of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (DcAMP or db-cAMP) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine

(IBMX) to approximately 3-week-old cultures of each mating type induced immediate release of naked gametes from the cell walls. Both plus and minus gametes formed a TMS in the anterior region of the protoplasts. Accumulation of actin was visualized see more by antibody staining in the TMS of both mating types as occurs in the TMS (fertilization tubule) of the plus gametes of the unicellular volvocalean Chlamydomonas reinhardtii P. A. Dang. Induction of naked gametes with a TMS in each mating type will be useful for future cell biological and evolutionary studies of the isogametes of colonial volvocalean algae. “
“Field sampling was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of Pseudo-nitzschia Peragallo species in eight locations along the coast of Malaysian Borneo. A total of 108 strains of Pseudo-nitzschia species were isolated, and their morphology examined with SEM and TEM. Additionally, molecular data from nuclear-encoded partial LSU rDNA, and ITS regions, were characterized. A total of five species were confidently identified based on a combination of distinct morphological characteristics and supporting molecular evidence: P. brasiliana Lundholm, Hasle & Fryxell, P.

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Caulerpa mexicana Sond ex Kütz is a siphonous tropical marine g

Caulerpa mexicana Sond. ex Kütz. is a siphonous tropical marine green alga characterized by four morphologically distinct regions and, as with other members of the genus, by the presence of a dense network of anastomosing cylindrical cell wall in growths called trabeculae. Based on the results of this study, we propose several roles for trabeculae: (i) They are structural components, which likely add some small amount of support in compression but add considerable strength in tension. (ii) As extensions of the cell wall and plasma membrane, they act as diffusion

channels from the cell exterior to the interior cytoplasm. It is possible that trabeculae also play a role in determining cell shape through see more developmental positioning and placement patterns, thus facilitating the diverse shapes found in the morphologically distinct regions of Caulerpa sp. “
“Marine and freshwater phytoplankton populations often show large clonal diversity, which is in disagreement with clonal selection of the most vigorous genotype(s). Temporal fluctuation in selection pressures in variable environments is a leading explanation for maintenance of such genetic diversity. To test the influence of temperature as a selection force in continually (seasonally) changing aquatic systems we carried out reaction norms experiments on co-occurring clonal genotypes of a ubiquitous diatom species, Asterionella formosa Hassall, across an environmentally

relevant range of temperatures. We report within population genetic diversity and extensive diversity

in genotype-specific reaction norms in growth rates selleckchem and cell size traits. Our results showed genotype by environment interactions, indicating that no genotype could outgrow all others across all temperature environments. Subsequently, we constructed a model to simulate the relative proportion of each genotype in a hypothetical population based on genotype and temperature-specific population growth rates. This model click here was run with different seasonal temperature patterns. Our modeling exercise showed a succession of two to several genotypes becoming numerically dominant depending on the underlying temperature pattern. The results suggest that (temperature) context dependent fitness may contribute to the maintenance of genetic diversity in isolated populations of clonally reproducing microorganisms in temporally variable environments. “
“The benthic recruitment of Microcystis was simulated in vitro in order to characterize the colonies of Microcystis recruited and to study the impact of intracellular and extracellular microcystins (MCs), and the influence of colony size on the recruitment process. We observed recruitment dynamics consisting of a lag phase followed by a peak and then a return to low recruitment rates, mainly controlled by passive resuspension throughout the experiment, and by physiological processes during the recruitment peak.

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e, bleeding, hematoma, infection, etc) were observed and

e., bleeding, hematoma, infection, etc.) were observed and RXDX-106 no elevation in the incidence of HCC was observed over a 192-week follow-up. In respect to short-term efficacy, the improvement in self-reported symptoms was

not different between the two groups. In respect to liver function at 1-4 weeks, the improvement in group A was superior to that in group B, as the improvement of ALB and TBIL levels and PT and MELD scores in group A were markedly superior to those in group B at 2-3 weeks after transplantation; however, ALT levels were not markedly changed. In respect to liver function at 1-48 weeks, the observed improvements were not maintained after 36 weeks. Furthermore, during the 192-week follow-up, results revealed no remarkable differences in the incidence of HCC or survival rate between the two groups. These finding

implied that autologous MMSC transplantation could not improve BMS-777607 molecular weight the long-term prognosis of patients with liver failure caused by hepatitis B. Furthermore, in group A, no significant difference was observed in the incidence of HCC or survival rate at the different time points between patients with and without cirrhosis. Since cirrhosis is considered one of the most important risk factors for HCC and can lead to a high mortality for patients with hepatitis B,30, 31 our results provided evidence that autologous MMSC transplantation might exert protective effects for cirrhosis patients in regards to the occurrence of HCC and mortality. Based on the above results, we speculated that autologous MMSC transplantation was safe for patients with liver failure caused selleck chemicals llc by hepatitis B. Autologous MMSC transplantation had favorable short-term efficacy (from postoperative weeks 4 to 36) and played important roles in repair after acute liver injury as well as improved disease condition and mortality. Also, for patients with cirrhosis, autologous MMSC transplantation might exert better protective effects in regards to the occurrence of HCC and mortality, but could not markedly improve the long-term prognosis of these patients. In addition, the transfusion of MMSCs was

performed through the proper hepatic artery. However, it has been shown to be inappropriate to perform the transfusion through the hepatic artery,26 and transfusion through peripheral veins may achieve more favorable outcomes.12, 14 Furthermore, the limited number of MMSCs in the bone marrow from patients for transfusion32 and that the homing ability was difficult to increase are the main causes of the compromised efficacy of autologous MMSC transplantation, and this may be why our autologous MMSC transplantation did not achieve acceptable long-term effects on prognosis. In vitro proliferation of autologous MMSCs and multiple transplantations with MMSCs with high purity and high density may be the key factors for improving the efficacy of transplantation.

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33–36 Regarding genotypes

33–36 Regarding genotypes selleck screening library A and D, one prospective study evaluated the clinical outcomes of 258 Spanish patients with chronic HBV infection; mean follow-up was 94 months.37 Although no differences were observed in the probability of HBeAg seroconversion between patients infected with genotype A and D, the rate of sustained remission after HBeAg seroconversion was higher in genotype A than genotype D (55% versus 32%, P < 0.01). As for spontaneous HBsAg seroclearance, compared to genotypes C and D, genotype A and B patients had a higher rate of HBsAg seroclearance.37,38 Taken together, these facts suggest the phenotype of HBeAg seroconversion

differs between genotypes B and C as well as genotypes A and D during the early phase of chronic HBV infection. Further, genotype C and D patients, compared to genotype A and B patients, have late or absent HBeAg seroconversion after multiple hepatitis flares that may accelerate the progression of chronic hepatitis, thereby conferring a poor clinical outcome. Most retrospective or case-control studies indicated this website that patients with genotype C infection have more severe liver disease, including cirrhosis and HCC, than those with genotype B.39–42 Recently, a community-based

prospective cohort study on 2762 Taiwanese HBV carriers demonstrated that HBV genotype C was associated with an increased risk of HCC than genotype B; the adjusted hazard ratio was 2.35 (95% CI = 1.68 to 3.30; P < 0.001).43 These findings confirm that genotype C correlates with a higher risk of HCC development. Of interest, several reports showed HBV genotype

B was associated with the early onset of HCC, whereas genotype C was associated with HCC development at older ages.32,39,44 The predominance of HBV genotype B in HCC patients was more prominent in those younger than 35 years, and most were cases of non-cirrhotic chronic hepatitis B. HBV genotype also influences the clinicopathological see more features of patients with resectable HCC. In Taiwan, among 193 resectable HBV-related HCC patients, genotype B patients had a higher rate of solitary tumor (94% versus 86%, P = 0.048) but more satellite nodules (22% versus 12%, P = 0.05) than genotype C patients. These characteristics may contribute to the recurrence patterns and prognosis of HBV-related HCC patients with genotype B or C infection.45,46 As for other genotypes, death related to liver disease is more frequent in patients infected with HBV genotype D and F than those with genotype A infection.37,47,48 In addition to HBV genotypes, emerging data reveal that HBV viral load and naturally occurring mutant strains are closely associated with long-term outcomes of HBV-related chronic liver disease.49,50 In an earlier study, we found that genotype C infections conferred a higher frequency of basal core promoter (BCP) A1762T/G1764A mutation than genotype B.

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2) Radioimmunity was applied to measure the plasma motilin level

2). Radioimmunity was applied to measure the plasma motilin level Doxorubicin mouse before and after ghrelin administration. 3). The c-Fos activation on the CNS and ENS through

intravenous injection of ghrelin was studied by the immunohistochemistry. Results: 1). Ghrelin showed an excitatory effect on gastrointestinal IMC. This effect was inhibited by atropine, L-arginine, ondansetron or (D-Lys3)GHRP-6, but not by propranolol and phentolamine. 2). The plasma motilin level in different phases of IMC of the normal rats had cyclical fluctuation with the lowest level in phase I, and the highest level in phase III. After injection of ghrelin, the cyclical fluctuation was not affected, and the motilin check details level had little difference in each corresponding phase compared with that before ghrelin administration. 3). In the CNS, the c-Fos expression of several nuclei such as the arcuate nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, and so on, was increased by injection of ghrelin. And the c-Fos expression of the duodenum, jejunum, and proximate colon was also activated by ghrelin. Conclusion: Ghrelin appears to play an important role in regulating of intestinal motility. Its excitatory effect relies on the cholinergic pathway

and is closely related to the NOS-NO or 5-HT pathway. Ghrelin receptor GHS-R regulates its activity. The excitatory effects of ghrelin on the intestinal IMC don’t have relationship with plasma motilin level. Intravenous administration of ghrelin could regulate the intestinal motility through the ENS or CNS. Key Word(s): 1. selleck products ghrelin; 2. IMC; 3. motilion; 4. c-Fos; Presenting Author: JUANIGNACIO TELLECHEA Additional Authors: FRANCOPABLO BELLAVITE, NICOLAS SALIM, CAROLINA BOLINO, HORACIO VAZQUEZ, GUIDO IANTORNO Corresponding Author: JUANIGNACIO TELLECHEA, FRANCOPABLO BELLAVITE Affiliations: None Objective: The World Health

Organization (WHO) estimates that Chagas Disease (Ch D) affects 16 to18 million people worldwide. It is considered endemic in America. Argentina has 2,5 million infected people and 10 million people are exposed to infection. The cardiac affection is the most frequent and has been studied extensively. Gastrointestinal compromise is present in less than 11% and most affected organs are esophagus and colon. The impact of colon affection in our country is unknown. Objectives: 1. Estimate the prevalence of Ch D in chronic constipation (CC) patients. 2. Characterize the sample according to systemic compromise, place of origin, radiologic findings and presence or absence of Rectoanal Inhibitory Reflex (RAIR). Methods: We reviewed medical records of adult patients ≥18 years old who were referred for chronic constipation. Patients with positive serology for Ch D (ELISA, IFI) were included; other reasons for chronic constipation were exclusion criteria.

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2) Radioimmunity was applied to measure the plasma motilin level

2). Radioimmunity was applied to measure the plasma motilin level Ku-0059436 mouse before and after ghrelin administration. 3). The c-Fos activation on the CNS and ENS through

intravenous injection of ghrelin was studied by the immunohistochemistry. Results: 1). Ghrelin showed an excitatory effect on gastrointestinal IMC. This effect was inhibited by atropine, L-arginine, ondansetron or (D-Lys3)GHRP-6, but not by propranolol and phentolamine. 2). The plasma motilin level in different phases of IMC of the normal rats had cyclical fluctuation with the lowest level in phase I, and the highest level in phase III. After injection of ghrelin, the cyclical fluctuation was not affected, and the motilin Raf inhibitor level had little difference in each corresponding phase compared with that before ghrelin administration. 3). In the CNS, the c-Fos expression of several nuclei such as the arcuate nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, and so on, was increased by injection of ghrelin. And the c-Fos expression of the duodenum, jejunum, and proximate colon was also activated by ghrelin. Conclusion: Ghrelin appears to play an important role in regulating of intestinal motility. Its excitatory effect relies on the cholinergic pathway

and is closely related to the NOS-NO or 5-HT pathway. Ghrelin receptor GHS-R regulates its activity. The excitatory effects of ghrelin on the intestinal IMC don’t have relationship with plasma motilin level. Intravenous administration of ghrelin could regulate the intestinal motility through the ENS or CNS. Key Word(s): 1. click here ghrelin; 2. IMC; 3. motilion; 4. c-Fos; Presenting Author: JUANIGNACIO TELLECHEA Additional Authors: FRANCOPABLO BELLAVITE, NICOLAS SALIM, CAROLINA BOLINO, HORACIO VAZQUEZ, GUIDO IANTORNO Corresponding Author: JUANIGNACIO TELLECHEA, FRANCOPABLO BELLAVITE Affiliations: None Objective: The World Health

Organization (WHO) estimates that Chagas Disease (Ch D) affects 16 to18 million people worldwide. It is considered endemic in America. Argentina has 2,5 million infected people and 10 million people are exposed to infection. The cardiac affection is the most frequent and has been studied extensively. Gastrointestinal compromise is present in less than 11% and most affected organs are esophagus and colon. The impact of colon affection in our country is unknown. Objectives: 1. Estimate the prevalence of Ch D in chronic constipation (CC) patients. 2. Characterize the sample according to systemic compromise, place of origin, radiologic findings and presence or absence of Rectoanal Inhibitory Reflex (RAIR). Methods: We reviewed medical records of adult patients ≥18 years old who were referred for chronic constipation. Patients with positive serology for Ch D (ELISA, IFI) were included; other reasons for chronic constipation were exclusion criteria.

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Instructions and training about the delay, along with scrolling g

Instructions and training about the delay, along with scrolling graphs, have been employed to deal with this RXDX-106 challenge.6,12,13 In addition, as noise in the fMRI signal is typically dealt with by traditional approaches of filtering and signal averaging, constant feedback must employ nontraditional approaches to prevent noise from impacting continuous feedback.2,3 Additionally and perhaps most importantly, the visual attention and cognitive load of evaluating feedback while simultaneously

engaged in the experimental paradigm may be confounding and actually distract from the task under primary study. Too much feedback may distract from the main task at hand. Because of these considerations, intermittent feedback may have some advantages over continuous feedback in RTfMRI neurofeedback procedures. By providing feedback at the end of a block of time, the participant does not need to be aware of any hemodynamic delay and more time points are available for filtering and signal averaging. Furthermore, experimental

task performance and the evaluation of feedback are separable in time (and can be more concretely isolated for further whole-brain analysis). In this study, we directly compared a continuous and an intermittent approach to providing RTfMRIf in a movement learn more imagery task. Our primary hypothesis was that intermittent RTfMRIf would be more effective for increasing brain function in a defined region of interest (ROI) than would continuous feedback. We further aimed to explore whole brain differences evaluating feedback continuously versus intermittently, and we used the intermittent paradigm to characterize brain regions involved in evaluating feedback. Healthy nonsmoking, right-handed volunteers, age of 18-60 years, were eligible to participate

in this study. After providing informed consent as approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Medical University of South Carolina, participants were screened for conditions contraindicated to MRI scanning, current DSM-IV Axis 1 psychiatric disorders, substance dependence, substance selleckchem abuse within the past 30 days, and significant medical problems or medications that would interfere with the hemodynamic response. Study subjects participated in six fMRI scans on the same day. Each scan involved a block-design “imagine movement” task. Participants were instructed to imagine moving their right hand when the word “IMAGINE” was visually displayed (imagined activities such as writing, playing a musical instrument, or completing a sports-related movement were suggested), and to engage in nonmovement thoughts when the word “REST” was displayed. A tight, molded foam wrist/hand brace was placed on the participant’s right hand, wrist, and forearm to limit movement during scanning.

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Instructions and training about the delay, along with scrolling g

Instructions and training about the delay, along with scrolling graphs, have been employed to deal with this Small molecule library cost challenge.6,12,13 In addition, as noise in the fMRI signal is typically dealt with by traditional approaches of filtering and signal averaging, constant feedback must employ nontraditional approaches to prevent noise from impacting continuous feedback.2,3 Additionally and perhaps most importantly, the visual attention and cognitive load of evaluating feedback while simultaneously

engaged in the experimental paradigm may be confounding and actually distract from the task under primary study. Too much feedback may distract from the main task at hand. Because of these considerations, intermittent feedback may have some advantages over continuous feedback in RTfMRI neurofeedback procedures. By providing feedback at the end of a block of time, the participant does not need to be aware of any hemodynamic delay and more time points are available for filtering and signal averaging. Furthermore, experimental

task performance and the evaluation of feedback are separable in time (and can be more concretely isolated for further whole-brain analysis). In this study, we directly compared a continuous and an intermittent approach to providing RTfMRIf in a movement Everolimus imagery task. Our primary hypothesis was that intermittent RTfMRIf would be more effective for increasing brain function in a defined region of interest (ROI) than would continuous feedback. We further aimed to explore whole brain differences evaluating feedback continuously versus intermittently, and we used the intermittent paradigm to characterize brain regions involved in evaluating feedback. Healthy nonsmoking, right-handed volunteers, age of 18-60 years, were eligible to participate

in this study. After providing informed consent as approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Medical University of South Carolina, participants were screened for conditions contraindicated to MRI scanning, current DSM-IV Axis 1 psychiatric disorders, substance dependence, substance learn more abuse within the past 30 days, and significant medical problems or medications that would interfere with the hemodynamic response. Study subjects participated in six fMRI scans on the same day. Each scan involved a block-design “imagine movement” task. Participants were instructed to imagine moving their right hand when the word “IMAGINE” was visually displayed (imagined activities such as writing, playing a musical instrument, or completing a sports-related movement were suggested), and to engage in nonmovement thoughts when the word “REST” was displayed. A tight, molded foam wrist/hand brace was placed on the participant’s right hand, wrist, and forearm to limit movement during scanning.

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Titanium and composite resin, both of which had no reaction on LS

Titanium and composite resin, both of which had no reaction on LST, were used in replacements of the intraoral restoration after the pruritus improved;

however, cervical selleckchem eczema emerged after 9 months, and repeat LST showed a specific reaction to Ti. The eczema improved after removal of the titanium. It is therefore likely that Ti allergy provoked the eczema. This report suggests that clinicians should be aware of the possibility of a titanium allergy from a dental restoration. “
“Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine effect of compressive cyclic loading on fatigue resistance and microleakage of monolithic CAD/CAM molar ceramic and composite crowns. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two Decitabine extracted molars were prepared to receive CEREC crowns according to manufacturer’s guidelines using a special paralleling device (Parallel-A-Prep). Sixteen feldspathic ceramic crowns (VITABLOCS Mark II) (VMII) and 16 resin-composite crowns (Paradigm-MZ100 blocks) (PMZ) were milled using a CEREC-3D machine. Eight crowns of each group were cemented to their respective teeth using self-etching

resin cement (Panavia-F-2.0) (PAN), and eight were cemented using self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX-Unicem-Clicker) (RXU). Following storage for 1 week in water, specimens were subjected to uniaxial compressive cyclic loading in an Instron testing machine at 12 Hz for 1,000,000 cycles. Load was applied at the central fossa, and the cycle range was 60–600 N. Specimens were then subjected to microleakage testing. Data were statistically analyzed using factorial ANOVA and Post Hoc (Tukey HSD) tests. Results: All composite crowns survived compressive cyclic loading without fracture, while three ceramic crowns from the subgroup cemented with RXU developed surface cracks at the center of occlusal surfaces, extending laterally. Microleakage scores of ceramic crowns cemented with PAN were significantly

lower than those of the other three subgroups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: selleck After 1,000,000 cycles of compressive cyclic loading, PMZ composite molar crowns were more fatigue-resistant than VMII ceramic crowns. Cement type had a significant effect on fatigue resistance of the ceramic crowns but not the composite ones. Microleakage scores of ceramic crowns cemented with PAN were significantly lower than those of the other subgroups (p < 0.05). "
“Purpose: Conventional denture base polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is low in strength, soft, and brittle on impact. Improvements in the mechanical properties of denture base materials have been sought by adding different reinforcing phases to the PMMA matrix. The purpose of this work was to study the effects of mica reinforcement on the mechanical properties, flexural strength, and microhardness of PMMA denture base resin. Materials and Methods: Wet ground muscovite mica and Lucitone 199 original shade denture base resin were used.

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