PCNA-positive nuclei (arrows) Scale bars 10 μm Figure 6 Cross s

PCNA-positive nuclei (arrows). Scale bars 10 μm. Figure 6 Cross sections of a granular layer in the cerebral cortex by anti-caspase-3 staining. (A) Control, (B) 1 μg/ml, (C) 10 μg/ml, (D) 20 μg/ml. Anti-caspase-3-positive cells (arrows). Scale bars 10 μm. Discussion In the present work, we studied the effects of different concentrations of platinum nanoparticle hydrocolloids administered to chicken embryos on their growth and development as well

as on IWP-2 cell line the morphological and molecular status of the brain at the end of embryogenesis. The chicken embryo is a very useful experimental model, developing without influence of the maternal organism and allowing very fast and precise assessments of toxicity [21, 22]. Moreover, NP-Pt were administered at the beginning of embryogenesis, when, consequently, nanoparticles could potentially penetrate the entire organism, including brain precursor cells, differentiated cells, and brain structures, both before and after the appearance of the BBB [7]. Our studies this website demonstrated that NP-Pt injected into eggs at concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 μg/ml did not influence the growth and development of the chicken embryos. Their survival as well as examination of their morphology according to HH standards of chicken embryo

development AZD6738 ic50 did not differ between the control and NP-Pt groups. No overt abnormalities that could indicate mutagenic effects of NP-Pt were observed. These results are in agreement with a recent investigation

demonstrating no toxic effects of NP-Pt on the growth and development of Danio rerio embryo [13]. Furthermore, they are in agreement with our own previous studies regarding the effects of nanoparticles of Adenosine triphosphate silver, silver/palladium alloy, and gold, showing no harmful effects on growth and development of embryos when the nanoparticles were used at concentrations below 100 μg/ml [23–27]. In contrast to NP-Pt, platinum-based drugs such as cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (II) (cisplatin) do show toxic effects on the development and mortality of rat embryos [28]. Platinum compounds also have toxic effects on mouse embryo development during organogenesis and histogenesis [29]. In our experiment, body weight and the weights of selected organs in the chicken embryos were not significantly affected by NP-Pt injection; however, liver weight was generally lower in the NP-Pt groups compared to the control group, which might indicate some harmful effects of NP-Pt. Subsequently, we measured the activities of hepatic enzymes in blood serum (ALT, AST, and ALP) as markers of the functional and morphological state of the liver [5], but these indices were not affected by NP-Pt. Consequently, our preliminary observations regarding growth and development suggest that NP-Pt do not seem to be harmful when evaluated at the whole body and organ level; however, potential subclinical changes might occur at the tissue and molecular levels.

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