Proteins were separated on 15% SDS-PAGE The fluorescent coumarin

Proteins were separated on 15% SDS-PAGE. The fluorescent coumarin-labeled proteins were monitored under UV light. The effect of various heavy metals on the expression of the ctsR operon was profiled by qRT-PCR analysis. Defined media (Townsend & Wilkinson, 1992) were used to simulate a heavy-metal-deficient environment. Staphylococcus aureus strain SH1000 was grown overnight at 37 °C in TSB. The following day, the cells were collected and suspended in defined media. The culture was then grown overnight. The culture was diluted 1:100 in fresh defined media and grown to OD600 nm

at 0.4. CuSO4 (200 μM), ZnSO4 (100 μM), CoCl2 (200 μM) or CdCl2 (100 μM) was added and the cells were grown for an additional 1 h. One TSA HDAC research buy culture was grown without excess metal ions. After 1 h, the cells were collected and total RNA was extracted using the RNeasy Protect Bacteria Mini Kit (Qiagen) and quantified by 260 nm spectrophotometry

(Nanodrop, Thermo Scientific). One microgram of total RNA was converted to cDNA using VX-809 cell line the High Capacity RNA-to-cDNA Kit (Applied Biosystems) following manufacturer’s protocols. qRT-PCR was then performed using the DyNAmo Flash SYBR Green qPCR Kit (Thermo Scientific) using gene-specific primers (Table 2), and data were collected using the ABI 7300 Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems). Up- or down-regulation was normalized

against the 16S rRNA gene and then against the uninduced cultures. All reactions were run in triplicate on the same cultures. A bacterial two-hybrid system was constructed using the pB2H∆α and pB2∆ω vectors as described by Borloo et al. (2007). DNA fragments Anidulafungin (LY303366) of the upstream and downstream regions of ctsR or mcsB were amplified from genomic DNA using primer pairs as shown on Table S1. The PCR product was first cloned in frame into the PCR2.1 vector (Invitrogen) and subsequently into the SphI and BamHI sites of pB2H∆α. The mcsA gene was amplified from genomic DNA using primers mcsA-F and mcsA-B (Table S1). The PCR product was cloned in frame into vector PCR2.1 and subsequently into the BamHI and SphI sites of pB2H∆ω. To test the function of the CXXC cysteines from McsA, site-directed mutagenesis was performed to replace Cys residues to Ala at the N-terminus of McsA as described above. The PCR product was first cloned in frame into the PCR2.1 vector, and mutation was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The fragment corresponding to mutated protein was gel-purified and subcloned into the SphI and BamHI site of pB2H∆ω. To co-express the fusion proteins, an E. coli MC1061 containing pB2H∆ω-mcsA or pB2H ∆ω-∆mcsA was transformed with pB2H∆α-ctsR or pB2H∆α-mcsB.

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