“Seventeen Apoptosis inhibitor Lactobacillus strains were tested for cell surface hydrophobicity

(CSH) using the salt aggregation test (SAT) and Congo red binding (CRB) assay. CRB was dependent on pH and ionic strength and was protease-sensitive. In the presence of 100 μg mL−1 cholesterol, the CRB was significantly reduced. Autoaggregating (AA) Lactobacillus crispatus strains showed 50% more CRB than the reference strain, the curli-producing Escherichia coli MC4 100. CRB of L. crispatus 12005, L. paracasei F8, L. plantarum F44 and L. paracasei F19 were enhanced when grown in Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth with 0.5% taurocholic acid (TA) or 5% porcine bile (PB) (P < 0.05). CSH was also enhanced for the non-AA strains L. plantarum F44, L. paracasei F19 and L. rhamnosus GG when grown in MRS broth with 0.5% TA, 5% PB or 0.25% mucin, with enhanced biofilm formation in MRS broth with bile (P < 0.05). Two AA strains, L. crispatus 12005 and L. paracasei F8, developed biofilm independent of bile or mucin.

In summary, under bile-stressed growth conditions, early (24-h cultures) biofilm formation is associated with an increase in hydrophobic cell surface proteins and high CRB. Late mature (72-h culture) biofilm contained more carbohydrates, as shown by crystal violet staining. High cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) is a common property of many bacteria colonizing the skin and various http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Sunitinib-Malate-(Sutent).html mucosal surfaces (Doyle & Rosenberg, 1990; Goulter et al., 2010). For many pathogens a high CSH is associated with the first step to colonizing these surfaces and open surgical wounds, often associated with biofilm formation on surgical sutures and indwelling medical devices such as vascular catheters (Klotz, 1990; Wadström, 1990). Some lactobacilli species which colonize the gut and

urogenital tract are not pathogens but have a Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) status recognized by the European Food Safety Authority (2007). These indigenous lactobacilli often showed the presence of specific hydrophobic cell surface proteins (CSPs), such as the S-layer of Lactobacillus crispatus and mucus-binding proteins in L. reuteri (Avall-Jääskeläinen & Palva, 2005; Mackenzie et al., 2010). Baricitinib The Congo red binding (CRB) assay was first developed to analyze the presence of hydrophobic CSPs of enterovirulent Shigellae and curli-producing Escherichia coli (Lindahl et al., 1981; Qadri et al., 1988; Blanco et al., 2012). It is also a well established method to study the virulence traits of several bacterial species (Kay et al., 1985; Cangelosi et al., 1999). For example, CRB-negative Shigellae mutants with a low CSH and deficient in specific hydrophobic CSPs are non-virulent (Qadri et al., 1988). More recently, a rough phenotype of the oral pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was shown to produce CRB-CSPs and is also defined as surface amyloid (Kimizuka et al., 2009).

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