Stratification is by far the most common adjustment method used in benchmark reports. The National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) and the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) previously reported type-specific rates of device-associated HAI stratified by critical care unit types for adults and paediatric patients and
by weight groups for neonatal patients  and . Additionally, dialysis access-related infections were stratified according to the type of vascular access , and procedure-specific surgical site infection (SSI) rates (actual proportions) were stratified according to the NHSN risk index category, which is based on the American Society of Anesthesiologists’ scores, Alectinib ic50 procedure duration, and wound classification . Although stratification is a straightforward and powerful method of adjustment, the question remains whether studies use the correct levels of stratification. For example, it was shown that procedure-specific stepwise logistic regression models for SSI data yielded new procedure-specific
risk factors that were more predictive than the current risk index category . Another potential problem with stratification selleckchem is that as the rate of HAI decreases, small units (such as coronary care units) may have too few outcomes to allow statistically meaningful comparisons over a specified time (usually one month). Multivariate regression adjustment and indirect standardization are increasingly used in reporting HAI surveillance metrics. A number of studies have adjusted HAI 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl prevalence and antimicrobial use for the case-mix (i.e., heterogeneity regarding the patient’s risk) using multivariate logistic regression models and an
indirect standardization method to allow for fair inter-hospital comparisons ,  and . Approximately two decades ago, the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) system introduced the standardized infection ratio (SIR) to indirectly standardize SSI rates using a standard population to enable fair comparisons of SSI rates between a healthcare facility and a benchmark with a different risk index category . Recently, the NHSN promoted the expansion of SIR use to report a single SIR for a specified device-associated HAI from multiple hospital locations (such as specialty care areas) to adjust for differences in HAI incidence between these locations .