The analysis strategy of the FACS data is depicted in Fig  1 In

The analysis strategy of the FACS data is depicted in Fig. 1. In brief, the forward-scatter (FSC)-A was plotted against the side-scatter (SSC)-A and an extended lymphocyte gate was drawn to select lymphocytes as well as monocyte and DC populations. Then, cells negative for live/dead (L/D) stain and positive for CD45 were gated. Subsequently, the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) signal (consisting of a combination of CD3, CD8, CD16 and

CD20) was plotted against HLA-DR. Lineage-negative/HLA-DR-positive cells were selected and CD14 was used to identify CD14-positive monocytes and a population of negative cells containing DC. Within the DC population, CD123 was plotted against CD11c to select the CD11c–/CD123+ pDC and CD11c+/CD123– AZD1208 mDC subpopulations. Fluorescence minus one (FMO) controls, containing all mAb except for the PE or PE-Cy7-labelled mAb, showed the same level of expression as CD83 or CD80 on fresh cells. Background expression was not increased after stimulation. Because the data showed that regardless of stimulation condition, after 8 h >95% of the cells were still found within the live/CD45+ gate, these markers were not included in subsequent experiments.

Instead, CD20 was used in the V450 detection channel to allow separate analysis of the B cells, as described previously [30]. The minimal number of white blood cells analysed per tube was 200 000. The minimal number of pDC, mDC and monocytes analysed were 75, 500 and 3000, respectively. A multi-step procedure was used to measure IL-12p40 mRNA expression in purified peripheral blood pDC and mDC upon TLR stimulation. First, PBMC were isolated from peripheral blood using lymphocyte separation medium (LSM) density gradient centrifugation (Organon-Teknica, Durham, NC, USA). Subsequently, partial purification of DC and monocytes was performed Loperamide by depletion of CD2-, CD3-, CD8-, CD16-, CD19- and CD20-expressing

cells, using a cocktail of PE-labelled mAb, followed by incubation with BD anti-PE beads and collection of the supernatant after placing the labelled cells for 8–10 min in a BD-Imagnet. These partially purified cell preparations were stimulated with either CL097 (1 μg/ml) or LPS (1 μg/ml) for 6 h at 37°C with Golgiplug present during the last 5 h. Finally, the cells were stained with a mixture of CD20V450, CD8AmCyan, CD14ECD, CD123PerCPCy5, CD11cAPC, CD3AF700 and HLA-DRAPCCy7 mAb and pDC and mDC subpopulations were sorted on a FACSAria cell sorter, using the gate setting described above. In each experiment, between 3000 and 5000 pDC and between 5000 and 10 000 mDC were obtained. Sorted pDC and mDC fractions contained between 5–15% and 10–20% granulocytes, respectively, as examined by Giemsa staining. Sorted monocytes contained fewer than 1% granulocytes. FACS analysis on sorted populations showed monocytes to be about 90% pure with fewer than 1% pDC and fewer than 5% mDC present.

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