The enhanced ability of chromoendoscopy and endomicroscopy to discriminate between nonneoplastic lesions, sporadic adenoma (adenomalike mass), and colitis-associated neoplasia (dysplasia-associated lesion masses) can potentially help to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, lengthen surveillance intervals, and reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies (see Fig. 3).2, 3 and 15 Panchromoendoscopy with either methylene blue or indigo carmine became a valid diagnostic tool for improving the diagnostic yield of intraepithelial neoplasia
using the SURFACE guidelines in patients with IBD.17 In the first randomized buy UK-371804 trial of endomicroscopy in ulcerative colitis, 153 patients with long-term ulcerative colitis who were in clinical remission were randomly
assigned at a ratio of 1:1 to undergo either conventional colonoscopy or panchromoendoscopy this website using 0.1% methylene blue in conjunction with endomicroscopy to detect intraepithelial neoplasia or colorectal cancer.4 Chromoendoscopy was used in this study to identify lesions for CLE and compared with standard white light endoscopy with random biopsies. In vivo endomicroscopic prediction of the nature of lesions (neoplastic vs nonneoplastic) was accurate in 97.8% of lesions. In the conventional colonoscopy group, 42.2 biopsies were necessary. In the chromoendoscopy/CLE these group, 3.9 biopsies per patient were sufficient, if only circumscribed lesions (by chromoendoscopy) with suspicious microarchitecture (by CLE) were biopsied.4 The negative predictive value (NPV) for mucosa with a normal appearance on CLE to not harbor intraepithelial neoplasia was 99.1%, which reinforces the concept of taking smart biopsies instead of untargeted, random specimens.4 Sanduleanu and colleagues18 showed that
Acriflavine-guided endomicroscopy enables clinicians to differentiate between low-grade and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. Adenoma dysplasia score reliably discriminated high-grade dysplasia from low-grade dysplasia (accuracy, 96.7%). Interobserver agreement was high (K coefficients: pathologist, 0.92; endomicroscopist, 0.88). In vivo histology predicted ex vivo data with a sensitivity of 97.3%, specificity of 92.8%, and accuracy of 95.7%. A meta-analysis of 91 studies, of which 11 on CLE by Wanders and colleagues19 compared the pooled sensitivity, specificity, and real-time NPV of virtual chromoendoscopy (NBI, i-scan, FICE), CLE, and autofluorescence imaging for differentiation between neoplastic and nonneoplastic colonic lesions. This meta-analysis showed that virtual chromoendoscopy and CLE had an overall similar sensitivity and specificity, in that CLE produced the best results (sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 89%) and only CLE had a real-time NPV of more than 90%.