The generation and maintenance of slow waves during SWS are assoc

The generation and maintenance of slow waves during SWS are associated with activity in defined cortical areas, including areas of the mPFC and subcortical nuclei, especially the thalamus (Maquet, 2000; Steriade & Pare, 2007). Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is associated with activation of the pons, thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, temporal and occipital cortices, and a concurrent alteration in the activity of the dorsolateral PFC (Kubota

et al., 2011). During sleep, the relative activity in different brain regions can thus be increased in a region-specific manner. Such activation may be transient due to waves of activity generated in mediofrontal regions rippling posteriorly through the cortex (Samann et al., 2011). Furthermore, fMRI studies exploring the relationship between sleep and Dinaciclib concentration memory have demonstrated a post-learning reactivation during REM sleep (Rauchs et al., 2011; Schwindel & McNaughton, 2011). The electrophysiological study of Rolls et al. (2003) demonstrated that neurons in Brodmann Area (BA) 25 (subgenual cingulate cortex) of macaques significantly increased their firing rates when the subjects disengaged from a task and fell asleep compared with the awake state. On average, the firing rates of these neurons

in BA25 when the macaques were asleep or when they were disengaged from a task were increased by + 435% of those when the monkeys were awake. It is currently unknown whether the significant increase in the Torin 1 purchase firing rates of some BA25 neurons with the onset of sleep is localized solely to the subgenual

cingulate cortex or is a common feature across all mPFC areas. The aim of this study was therefore to establish whether single neurons in other areas of monkey mPFC (BAs 9, 10, 13 m, 14c, dorsal anterior cingulate 24b and especially pregenual cingulate 32) had similar changes of firing rate related to the onset of sleep and eye-closure. Such data would of be extremely relevant to understanding the basic neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the involvement of the mPFC in human sleep (Maquet, 2000), both in normal and in abnormal states (Vogt, 2009; Price & Drevets, 2012). It would also be relevant to the interpretation of the increased activation measured in the default mode network in the resting state in neuroimaging studies (Buckner et al., 2008; Mantini et al., 2011), in which the measures relate to increased blood flow or metabolism, and not directly to firing rate. The data presented in this paper relating to ‘sleep active/sleep inactive’ neurons were obtained during a series of experiments investigating the response properties of single neurons in monkey mPFC to a variety of gustatory, olfactory, visual, somatosensory and auditory stimuli (as reported previously by Rolls, 2008).

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