The hierarchical coupling of slow and fast oscillations is crucia

The hierarchical coupling of slow and fast oscillations is crucial for the rehearsal of sensory inputs for short-term storage, as well as for binding sensory inputs that are represented in spatially segregated cortical areas. However, no experimental evidence for the binding of spatially segregated information has yet been presented for memory maintenance in humans. In the present study, we actively manipulated memory maintenance performance with an attentional blink procedure during human scalp electroencephalography this website (EEG) recordings and identified that slow oscillations are enhanced when memory maintenance is successful. These slow oscillations accompanied

fast oscillations in the gamma frequency range that appeared at spatially segregated scalp sites. The amplitude of the gamma oscillation at these scalp sites was simultaneously enhanced at an EEG phase of the slow oscillation. Successful memory maintenance appears to be achieved by a rehearsal of sensory inputs together with a coordination of distributed fast oscillations at a preferred

timing of the slow oscillations. “
“The aim of this study was to investigate the morphology, molecular phenotypes, distribution and developmental history of interstitial click here neurons in the human corpus callosum, here defined as intracallosal neurons. We analysed 26 fetuses, three newborns, five infants and children, and eight adults [age range – 15 weeks postconception (PCW) to 59 years] by means of acetylcholinesterase

(AChE) histochemistry and immunohistochemistry for neuron markers (MAP2, NeuN, NPY, calretinin and calbindin). We found a heterogeneous neuron population, positioned within the callosal trunk itself (aside from neurons present in the transient midline structures such as callosal sling, septa or subcallosal zone), which was most numerous during the second half of gestation and early postnatal years. We named these cells intracallosal neurons. At 15 PCW, the intracallosal neuron population consisted of poorly differentiated, small fusiform or bipolar, migratory-like MAP2- or calretinin-positive neurons which could be observed until mid-gestation. oxyclozanide Later the population comprised morphologically diverse, predominantly well-differentiated MAP2-, NPY-, calbindin- and AChE-positive neurons. The morphological differentiation of intracallosal neurons culminated in the newborns and remained pronounced in infants and children. In the adult brain, the intracallosal neurons were found only sporadically, with small somata and poorly stained dendrites. Thus, intracallosal neurons form part of a transitory neuron population with a developmental peak contemporaneous to the critical period of callosal formation. Therefore, they may be involved in processes such as axon guiding or elongation, withdrawal of exuberant axons, fasciculation, or functional tuning, which occur at that time.

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