The mismatch between local scale establishment of MPAs and national or international scale policies and
agreements aiming to conserve marine biodiversity, coupled with the natural tendency of administrative bodies to be insular, leads to piecemeal efforts. Integrated coastal management or ICM (Olsen and Christie, 2000), now subsumed within ecosystem-based management click here or EBM (McLeod and Leslie, 2009), is a set of contextual and design principles to accommodate this need for explicit interventions with the need for seamless, regional-scale care of coastal ecosystems. But while ICM has been discussed for over 20 years, examples of its effective implementation are rare (Tallis et al., 2010 and Collie et al., 2013). Similarly, while it is increasingly recognized that management should be done at larger scales, including through the large marine ecosystem framework (Sherman, 1986) that identifies 64 large marine ecosystems (LMEs), large-scale management efforts frequently fail to generate the essential buy-in by local communities and stakeholders that is necessary for success (Christie Selleckchem NVP-BKM120 et al., 2005 and Tallis et al., 2010). What appears to be needed is a technically simple set of procedures that can enforce a multi-scale perspective and a strongly holistic approach to management despite the diversity of agencies,
stakeholders and goals inherent in any attempt to manage coastal waters on a regional scale. We propose making
expanded use of marine spatial planning (MSP) and zoning as a framework L-gulonolactone oxidase that will apportion coastal waters for differing activities, while forcing a multi-target and multi-scale approach, and achieving agreed ecological, economic and social objectives (Agardy, 2010 and Tallis et al., 2010). MSP has been practiced largely in developed countries, principally focusing on conservation of coastal ecosystems (Agardy, 2010, Tallis et al., 2010 and Collie et al., 2013). Use of MSP to facilitate sustainable food production, in concert with other activities, has received very little attention, despite the great dependence on small-scale fisheries in tropical developing countries (Hall et al., 2013), where rural communities have few alternative sources of animal protein (Bell et al., 2009, Kawarazuka and Bene, 2011 and Lam et al., 2012). In these countries, effective coastal management must acknowledge this widespread dependence of poor and politically weak communities on the use of fish for food (Lam et al., 2012 and Hall et al., 2013). Acknowledging this dependence (Bell et al., 2006, Bell et al., 2009 and Mills et al., 2011) is pivotal to reconciling the largely separate agendas for food security and biodiversity conservation (Rice and Garcia, 2011 and Foale et al., 2013).