The reaction, however, can be forced in the opposite direction
by applying an alkaline pH of 9.0, which causes deprivation of H+ ions (Bergmeyer, 1983). Normally the enzyme is fairly stable at its own pH optimum, and so this is recommended not only for testing, but also for storage. This is also of some importance for the performance of enzyme assays, since addition of an aliquot of the enzyme stock solution to the assay mixture will not affect the assay pH. Sometimes, however, the stock solution of the enzyme possesses a different pH, like trypsin, which should be stored at a strong acid pH of 3.0 albeit its alkaline learn more pH optimum of 9.5, in order to suppress autolysis (unlike most other enzymes, trypsin tolerates this extreme pH) (Bisswanger, 2011). In such cases care must be taken that the added aliquot does not modify the pH of the assay mixture, a circumstance, which must be considered for any addition, if its pH deviates from that of the assay mixture. While the enzyme is stable within the range of its pH optimum, more extreme pH values in both directions attack its tertiary structure in an irreversible manner. This process is time-dependent and depends on the effective pH, the further it deviates
from the optimum pH, the faster the inactivation. In strong acid (<3) as well as at strong basic (>11) pH inactivation occurs practically at once, therefore contacts of the enzyme with such pH values, even for short time, and must strictly be avoided (with the exception of special selleck chemical enzymes resistant to such conditions, like trypsin). A pH stability curve shows the dependence of
the stability of the respective enzyme on the pH (Figure 4). It is similar in its shape, but broader than the bell-shaped pH curve. Buffers serve to adjust and stabilize the desired pH during the enzyme assay. They consist of a weak acid and a strong basic component. The relationship between the pH and the Histamine H2 receptor buffer components is described by the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation: pH=pKa−log[HAc]/[Ac−]HAc and Ac− is the acid in the non-dissociated and the dissociated form, respectively, pH=−log[H+] is the negative logarithm of the proton concentration, pKa=−log Ka, the negative logarithm of Ka, the dissociation constant of the buffer components. The pKa value indicates the pH, where the buffer components are just half dissociated; at this point the buffer possesses its highest buffer capacity. It is accepted that the capacity of buffers comprises a range from one pH unit below to one pH unit above the pKa value (a more strict rule allows only a deviation of ±0.5). Lists of commonly applied buffers with their respective pKa values are given in the standard literature ( Bisswanger, 2011, Cooper, 1977, Tipton and Dixon, 1979, Stoll and Blanchard, 1990 and Perrin and Dempsey, 1979), where a suitable buffer system for covering the pH optimum of a special enzyme can be found.