The reported strain values varied between 94 and 139 μstrain for

The reported strain values varied between 94 and 139 μstrain for a 50 N loading on the central incisor, and 196 μstrain for 50 N and 239 μstrain for 100 N at the canine. These regions

had similar bone thickness and density as the mandibular section simulated in this selleck chemicals study.20 Another important aspect in the approximation of a clinical situation was the simulation of the periodontal ligament, because this tissue plays an important role in the transfer and evenly distribution of occlusal loads to supporting bone tissue.23 and 24 An elastomeric material was used in this study to simulate the role of the periodontal ligament in the load distribution. Load levels of up to 150 N were selected because the maximum bite force at incisors has been reported to vary between 40 and 200 N.8 The 50, 100 and 150 N load steps were used to test the influence of loads that are low, medium and near the limit of the reported physiological loading. It is important to consider a

range of physiological loading. Although occlusal loads in the anterior region are usually considered to be relatively small,11 the incidence of higher loads in the anterior region can arise, for example, due to loss of posterior tooth support that leads to concentration of the occlusal forces on anterior teeth. Strain measurements at the three loading conditions showed that strain values in the anterior mandible was proportional to the applied load level. Neratinib cell line High strains in supporting bone tissue may cause immediate damage to the bone or dental splint structure. Although lower loads lead to lower strains, low loads can still be clinically significant. If applied repetitively over a longer period of time, even low loads may lead to fatigue failure or interfere with the rehabilitation process. Furthermore, when the occlusal loads are transferred through supporting bone, which can be extremely thin in the anterior region, even low occlusal loads may induce high levels of strain. The higher strain values that were found on the buccal side may be attributed to the thinner support structure compared to the

lingual side (Table 4). Janus kinase (JAK) In an area with periodontal disease, bone support of the teeth is reduced, therefore also increasing strains in the support tissue, as shown in the Bl group (Table 4). The dense structure of cortical bone in the anterior mandible has a relatively low strain limit. If strains exceed the strain limit, microcracks will form in the supporting bone. Osteoclasts preferentially resorb bone tissue that contains microcrack spaces, thus this condition may lead to bone resorption.7 It has been reported that if the loading amplitude and frequency exceed the damage repair rate, damage may accumulate and bone resorb due to the osteoclastic activity.7 The healing rate of alveolar bone may thus be determined by the presence of microcracks, since formation of new bone must fill resorption spaces.

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