The results demonstrated that treatment with either mAb resulted

The results demonstrated that treatment with either mAb resulted in dysregulation, with GCs exhibiting abnormally elevated numbers of switched GC B cells (Figs 8 and 9). These findings would appear to confirm learn more iTreg cells as the effector sub-set governing GC reactions to exogenous antigens. It should be noted, however, that both TGF-β81 and IL-1082

have been implicated as Treg-derived effector molecules mediating suppression, in addition to their role in iTreg-cell induction and maintenance. As such, the possibility exists that these molecules are directly regulating cellular events within the GC as opposed to sustaining antigen-specific iTreg cells. In summary, the current study extends our understanding of how Treg cells govern humoral immunity. Whereas previous work clearly showed that the Treg cells control levels of secreted antibodies16–29 and numbers of antibody-forming cells33,34,36 the findings herein are the first to detail the extent to which

Treg cells can influence GCs over the course of the entire reaction. In addition to containing the overall size of the GC response, Treg cells appear to limit the pool of switched GC B cells and thereby maintain a steady ratio of IgM+ to IgM− GC cells. Although it is presently unclear as to why there is pressure Wnt signaling to carefully regulate numbers of switched GC B cells, this process may be necessary to enforce selection away from self-reactivity and towards high-affinity antigen-specific clones within the GC. This work is supported by grant NIH R01AA019438 to T.W. The authors declare having no financial or commercial conflicts of interest. Figure S1.    Effect of regulatory T (Treg) cell disruption on splenic non-germinal centre (GC) B cells. Figure S2.    Depletion of regulatory T (Treg) cells leads to abnormal sheep red blood

cell (SRBC) -induced Y27632 germinal centre responses in BALB/c mice. Figure S3.    Germinal centre (GC) B cells do not express glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR), CD25 or interleukin-10 receptor (IL-10R). Figure S4.    Disruption of regulatory T (Treg) cells does not alter numbers of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in the spleen at the peak of the response. “
“The aim of the study was to evaluate long-term clinical and immunological effects of anti-B cell treatment in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis refractory to conventional immunosuppressive treatment. Rituximab (RTX) was added to the ongoing immunosuppressive treatment in 29 patients with refractory ANCA-associated vasculitis. The disease activity was measured using Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score/Wegener’s granulomatosis (BVAS/WG score), and clinical laboratory variables were recorded. The median BVAS/WG score before treatment was 6 (IQR 3–8), and 28 patients (97%) had disease flare classified either severe (62%) or limited (34%).

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