These coupling constants are independent of the magnetic field.

The closer the nuclei are to each other (fewer bonds), the larger the magnitude of the coupling for related molecules. There are certainly cases, however, where three-bond coupling constants are larger than two-bond coupling constants. If the chemical shifts or effective chemical shifts of the coupled nuclei are large compared to the coupling constant, then the spectral patterns are relatively simple MK-2206 price and are considered first-order. When the chemical shifts are of the magnitude of the coupling constant, the spectra become more complex and are called second order. Resolution of coupling is an important spectroscopic technique in structure determination. Spin–spin coupling can be studied by double resonance, spin-decoupling experiments, spectral simulation and by two dimensional correlation spectroscopy ( Becker, 1980). The third and most often neglected of the parameters are the relaxation rates of the nuclei. In fact, in the initial search for a nuclear resonance phenomenon, dynamic processes and line shapes were of primary interest, and coupling constants and chemical shifts observed in liquids came as a surprise. The equations derived to define the motion of the magnetic moment (μ) or magnetization

M in the samples, were given by Bloch (1946). The motion in the direction of the external magnetic field Bo (old nomenclature Ho), is designated as dM, z/dt. In the plane perpendicular to Bo (old nomenclature Ho), the x, y plane, the motion of the

magnetization vector is designated as dM, x/dt. Magnetization in the x,y plane OSI-906 in vitro occurs because of the property of spin of the nuclei. When a sample with a nuclear spin is placed in an external magnetic field, Bo, a torque O-methylated flavonoid is placed on the magnetic moment M that changes the angular momentum, P. dPdt=−BoMSince the spin angular momentum is related to the magnetic moment by the magnetogyric ratio γ M=γPM=γPthen dmdt=−γBoMThis expression describes the motion of the magnetic moment or magnetization about the z axis defined as the direction of the Bo field. At equilibrium the nucleus has a magnetization of Mo. The decay or relaxation of the magnetization in the z axis is characterized by a relaxation rate, 1/T1. A change in Mz is accompanied by a transfer of energy between the nuclear spin and other degrees of freedom or the lattice of the surroundings and is hence called the “longitudinal relaxation rate” or the “spin–lattice relaxation rate”, 1/T1. A decay in the transverse components of the magnetization, Mx and My, results in an exchange of energy between spins of different nuclei without transfer to the lattice, and is called the “transverse relaxation rate” or the “spin–spin relaxation rate”, 1/T2. In solution studies, the exchange of energy between the spin system being studied and the environment affect both T1 and T2.