This allows the biofilm to form under continuous hydrodynamic con

This allows the biofilm to form under continuous hydrodynamic conditions at a controlled and www.selleckchem.com/products/Nilotinib.html reproducible flow rate. In this study, we used promoter fusions to green fluorescence protein (GFP), flow cell biofilms, and fluorescence microscopy to measure temporal and spatial expression of selected biofilm associated genes in Escherichia coli biofilms. The genetic system that is used for this study consists of the flagellar 4SC-202 [16] and global regulator [17–19] complex

FlhD4/FlhC2[20] and the two-component systems for osmoregulation EnvZ/OmpR [21] and colanic acid activation RcsCDB [22]. These three regulatory systems are part of a partial transcriptional network that centered around FlhD/FlhC and regulated all the biofilm associated cell surface organelles [23]. In particular, OmpR and RcsB in their phosphorylated form are inhibitors of flhD expression [24]. RcsB and OmpR are regulators of type I fimbriae [25, 26], as well as expression of many other genes [27, 28]. In planktonic E. coli, growth phase dependent expression of flhD required OmpR. Additionally, flhD expression in the ompR mutant was much higher [29]. This was also true for JQ-EZ-05 cost flhD expression and swarming of Xenorhabdus nematophila[30]. While all the above research involving OmpR, RcsB, and

FlhD/FlhC was done with planktonic bacteria, this study investigates the impact of this regulation on biofilm formation. In particular, we wanted to accomplished three goals: i) provide proof of concept that the study of temporal and spatial expression of biofilm associated genes can lead to the identification of novel targets or target mechanisms for the development of biofilm prevention techniques (gene is expressed early in biofilm development) and treatment options (gene is expressed late and at the edge of the biofilm); ii) attempt to identify FlhD/FlhC as the first such targets, because it is a transmitter between numerous

environmental conditions and many cellular responses, and iii) establish OmpR and RcsB as control mechanisms that can be taken Acyl CoA dehydrogenase advantage of to increase flhD expression and reduce biofilm amounts. Results Temporal gene expression of flhD, ompR, and rcsB in E. coli biofilm Expression of flhD peaked at 12 h and increased again towards 51 h of biofilm formation Fluorescence microscopy images were produced from flow cell grown biofilm of the E. coli genetic parent strain AJW678 that contained the flhD::gfp fusion plasmid, called pPS71. Fluorescence signals obtained from these biofilms were highest at 12 h, lowest at 35 h, and then increased again towards 51 h of biofilm formation. This was seen in all four time series of images that had been taken from four independently formed biofilms. A selection of images from one of these experiments is shown in the left column of Figure 1. Occasionally, we observed high signals in individual bacteria of the 3 h sample, but the number of bacteria on the slides was not indicative of a biofilm at that point in time.

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