This finding has stimulated a larger trial that is expected to be

This finding has stimulated a larger trial that is expected to begin in late 2013

or early 2014. Given the role of IL-6 in NMO, IL-6-targeted therapy with the monoclonal anti-IL-6-receptor antibody tocilizumab Selumetinib might represent another future treatment strategy, following encouraging case reports [115-117]. Further preliminary but intriguing experimental approaches are competitive, non-pathogenic, AQP4-specific antibodies, neutrophil elastase inhibitors or antihistamines with eosinophil-stabilizing properties [144, 166, 168, 291]. The work of B. W. was supported by a research grant from Merck Serono. The work of S. J. was supported by a research fellowship from the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS). B. W. has served on a scientific advisory board for Novartis and Biogen Idec, has received funding for travel and speaker honoraria from Biogen Idec, Bayer Schering Cilomilast purchase Pharma, Merck Serono, Teva Pharmaceutical

Industries Ltd and Genzyme-A Sanofi Company and has received research support from Bayer Schering Pharma, Merck Serono, Biotest Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd and the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF). S. J. has no conflicts of interest. F. P. has received speaker honoraria, travel grants and research grants from Teva, Sanofi/Genzyme, Bayer, Merck-Serono, Biogen Idec and Novartis. He serves on the from Novartis advisory board of the OCTIMS study. He is supported by the German ministry of education and research (BMBF/KKNMS, Competence Network Multiple Sclerosis). F. P. is also supported by the German Research Foundation (Exc 257) and has received travel reimbursement from the Guthy Jackson Charitable Foundation. “
“For more accurate PCR-based identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis harboring genotype II fimA, the most prevalent type in periodontitis patients, a new primer set was developed and evaluated. The previous type II primers hybridized to the DNA of P. gingivalis strains harboring type Ib as well as type II fimA, while the new primers specifically amplified only the

DNA fragment of type II fimA. In the investigation using mixed bacterial culture and 155 clinical samples from peri-implantitis patients, the new primers increased the accuracy of PCR-based detection of type II fimA by excluding false-negatives as well as false-positives. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram-negative, black-pigmented anaerobe associated with periodontal diseases (Darveau et al., 1997; Amano et al., 1999). Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae are filamentous components located on the cell surface that are thought to play a significant role in the colonization and invasion of periodontal tissues (Amano, 2003). The major fimbrial subunit, fimbrillin (FimA), is encoded by the fimA whose genotypic variation is known to be an important determinant of the virulence of P.

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