Thus to identify selleck chemical long-term carriage reliably requires swabs over at least two years and spa-typing, including systematic methods for identifying co-colonisation, limiting the potential for accurate identification of long-term consistent carriage phenotypes for future genome-wide association studies. However, we have conclusively demonstrated bacterial lineage-specific effect on carriage dynamics. The transient carriage of spa-types with/without underlying persistent carriage, the lack of modifiable risk factors and the strong influence of antibiotics and strain-type on carriage acquisition, loss and persistence, highlights the dynamic nature of S. aureus as a human commensal. This emphasises the importance of focussing prevention
efforts on reducing universal infection risk rather than eradication of carriage in individuals. 37 and 38 This work was supported by both the National Institute
for Health Research (NIHR) under its Oxford Biomedical Research Centre Infection Theme, and the UKCRC Modernising Medical Microbiology Consortium, the latter being funded under the UKCRC Translational Infection Research Initiative supported by Medical Research Council, Biotechnology GSK2118436 mw and Biological Sciences Research Council and the National Institute for Health Research on behalf of the Department of Health (Grant G0800778) and The Wellcome Trust (Grant 087646/Z/08/Z). DWC and TEAP are NIHR Senior Investigators. The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the National Health Service, the NIHR or the Department of Health. The funders had no role in study design, data collection, analysis, decision to publish, or manuscript preparation. The study was conceived and designed by RM, DWC, TEAP, ASW, KK, RB and DM, with analysis performed by RM and ASW. HG, RF, RM and AV contributed to data acquisition. RM, ASW, KK, DM, TEAP and DCW contributed to data interpretation. RM wrote the first draft which all authors commented on, and all authors approved the final version. RM had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of
the data analysis; and the decision to submit for publication. No author has a conflict of interest. We thank all the people of Oxfordshire who took part in the study and Martin Florfenicol Llewelyn for his comments on an earlier draft of the manuscript. “
“Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health concern worldwide, with an estimated 1.3 million deaths reported in 2007. The disease is concentrated in the developing world and 80% of all cases are present in the highest-burden countries. Despite technological developments over the past 100 years, the diagnostic tools for TB are similar to those used a century ago, particularly in low-income countries. Throughout the past decade, a number of biomarkers have been tested for the diagnosis of TB and prognosis prediction in TB patients.